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On Remanufacturing Systems: Analysing and Managing Material Flows and Remanufacturing Processes
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of remanufacturing is to retrieve a product’s inherent value when the product no longer fulfils the user’s desired needs. By taking advantage of this inherent value through different product recovery alternatives, there is a potential for both economically and environmental advantageous recovery of products.

Remanufacturing is a complex business due to the high degree of uncertainty in the production process, mainly caused by two factors: the quantity and the quality of returned products. These factors have implications both on the external processes, e.g. coordinating input of returned products with the demand for remanufactured products, as well as the internal processes that coordinates the operations within the factory walls. This additional complexity needs to be considered when organising the remanufacturing system.

The objective of this dissertation is to explore how remanufacturing companies can become more competitive through analysing and managing material flows and remanufacturing processes.

The first issue discussed in this dissertation is the drivers that make companies interested in remanufacturing products in the first place. The conclusion is that the general drivers are profit, company policy and the environmental drivers. In a general sense, the profit motivation is the most prevalent business driver, but still there are situations where this motivation is secondary to policy and environmental drivers. Secondly, the need to balance the supply of returned products with the demand for remanufactured products shows that the possible remanufacturing volumes for a product are dependent on the shape of the supply and demand distributions. By using a product life cycle perspective, the supply and demand situations can be foreseen and support is given on possible strategies in these different supply and demand situations. Thirdly, how used products are gathered from customers is categorised by seven different customer relationship types. These types all have different effects on the remanufacturing system, and the characteristics of these relationships are disused in detail.

When considering the remanufacturing process within the factory walls, a generic remanufacturing process was developed that divides the remanufacturing process into five different phases; pre-disassembly, disassembly, reprocessing, reassembly and the post-assembly phase. These different phases are separated by three different key decision points in the process that also have a major impact on the material planning of the process. For the remanufacturing material planning and production planning, the possibility to apply lean principles can be difficult. One foundation for implementing lean principles in new production is the existence of standardised processes that are stable and predictable. In the remanufacturing system, the possibilities to realise a predictable process is limited by the “normal” variations in quantity and the quality of the returned cores. Even though lean principles can be problematic to implement in the remanufacturing environment, this dissertation proposes a number of solutions that can be used to make the remanufacturing process leaner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling , 2008.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1192
Keyword [en]
Remanufacturing, After Market, Product Recovery, Lean Production, Production Economics
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-11932ISBN: 978-91-7393-877-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-11932DiVA: diva2:18334
Public defence
2008-06-12, C3, Hus C, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-05-27 Created: 2008-05-27 Last updated: 2009-05-19
List of papers
1. Business drivers for remanufacturing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business drivers for remanufacturing
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of CIRP Life Cycle Engineering Seminar , 15th edition, Sidney, Australia, 2008, 581-586 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper the aim is to explore what drives companies to get involved in the remanufacturing operations. In the previous research there have been numerous case studies that partly have addresses the issue of why a company is getting involved in remanufacturing. A main conclusion from this study is that the motives for remanufacturing a product are very case-dependent e.g. in what industry sector the company have business in and what product type being remanufactured. In this study it is found that there are mainly three general business drivers for remanufacturing. These are: profit, company policy and the environmental drivers. For remanufacturing to be successful, these drivers are crucial, although it does not propose that all of theses drivers have to be present for a successful remanufacturing system. When combining the profit, policy and environmental factors there is a great potential for a win-win-win situation, meaning that the customer gets a quality product at a lower price, the manufacturer reduces their manufacturing costs and the environment gains from a lower environmental impact.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13320 (URN)1877040673 (ISBN)
Conference
15th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering
Available from: 2008-05-27 Created: 2008-05-27 Last updated: 2016-04-12
2. Product life-cycle implications for remanufacturing strategies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Product life-cycle implications for remanufacturing strategies
2009 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 17, no 11, 999-1009 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For remanufacturing to be successful, there is a need to gain information on future market needs of remanufactured products, and match this to information on the magnitude of return flows. One of the major issues impacting remanufacturing is in the difficulty of obtaining used products (cores) that are suitable for remanufacturing. The timing and quantity of product returns is dependent on the type of product. Factors such as the mean product lifetime, rate of technical innovation, and failure rate of components all influence the return rate of products from end-of-use and end-of-life. The balance between product returns and demand for remanufactured products is a function of many variables, where the rate of technological innovation and the expected life of a product are the major influencing characteristics. The main contribution of this paper is the support that is provided in different supply and demand situations. By using a product life-cycle perspective, the supply and demand situations can be foreseen, and support given regarding possible strategies in these situations.

Keyword
Remanufacturing; Component cannibalization; Product life-cycle; Remanufacturing strategies
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13321 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.02.021 (DOI)
Note

Original Publication: Johan Östlin, Erik Sundin and Mats Björkman, Product Lifecycle Implications for Remanufacturing Strategies, 2009, Journal of Cleaner Production, (17), 11, 999-1009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.02.021 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/

Available from: 2009-06-12 Created: 2009-03-09 Last updated: 2016-04-12Bibliographically approved
3. Importance of Closed Loop Supply Chain Relationships for Product Remanufacturing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Importance of Closed Loop Supply Chain Relationships for Product Remanufacturing
2008 (English)In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, Vol. 115, no 2, 336-348 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Remanufacturing is an industrial process where used products are restored (remanufactured) to useful life. In comparison to manufacturing, remanufacturing has some general characteristics that complicate the supply chain and production system. For example, a company must collect the used products from the customers, and thus the timing and quality of the used products are usually unknown. Remanufacturing companies are dependent on customers to return used products (cores). In this paper, seven different types of closed-loop relationships for gathering cores for remanufacturing have been identified. The relationships identified are ownership-based, service-contract, direct-order, deposit-based, credit-based, buy-back and voluntary-based relationships. Building theory around these different types of relationships, several disadvantages and advantages are described in the paper. By exploring these relationships, a better understanding can be gained about the management of the closed-loop supply chain and remanufacturing.

Keyword
Product recovery, Reverse logistics, Relationship marketing
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13322 (URN)10.1016/j.ijpe.2008.02.020 (DOI)
Note
Original Publication: Johan Östlin, Erik Sundin and Mats Björkman, Importance of Closed Loop Supply Chain Relationships for Product Remanufacturing, 2008, International Journal of Production Economics, (115), 2, 336-348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2008.02.020 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2009-06-14 Created: 2009-03-09 Last updated: 2016-04-12Bibliographically approved
4. Material and Process Complexity: Implications for Remanufacturing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Material and Process Complexity: Implications for Remanufacturing
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of EcoDesign-05, 4th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, Tokyo, Japan, 12-14 December, 2005, 154-161 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Remanufacturing is a complex business. Many different factors and decisions affect the performance of a remanufacturing process. In this paper, four different remanufacturing cases are analyzed in how they manage these complexities. Based on the generic remanufacturing process, remanufacturing can be divided into the five phases of pre-disassembly, disassembly, reprocessing, reassembly and post-assembly. In each of these phases, a discussion is made regarding the specific factors and decisions that influence the order and purpose of the individual operations.

Series
Keyword
assembling, manufacturing processes, recycling, disassembly, generic remanufacturing process, process complexity, reassembly, reprocessing
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13323 (URN)10.1109/ECODIM.2005.1619192 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-05-27 Created: 2008-05-27 Last updated: 2009-06-09
5. Lean Remanufacturing: a Study Regarding Material Flow
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lean Remanufacturing: a Study Regarding Material Flow
2008 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13324 (URN)
Available from: 2008-05-27 Created: 2008-05-27 Last updated: 2016-04-12
6. Lean Production Principles in Remanufacturing: A Case Study at a Toner Cartridge Remanufacturer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lean Production Principles in Remanufacturing: A Case Study at a Toner Cartridge Remanufacturer
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, IEEE , 2007, 216-221 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Scandi-Toner AB works with remanufacturing of toner cartridges; both color cartridges and black cartridges The company Scandi-Toner and the remanufacturing industry in general do, compared to ordinary manufacturing, have some specific characteristics that might limit the possibilities to apply lean production principles, due to the high degree of uncertainty in the production process. These uncertainties are mainly caused by two factors: the quantity and quality of returned cores. Overall, these characteristics make the remanufacturing material flow harder to control. Hence the purpose of this paper is to analyze if lean productions principles for material flow can be applied in a remanufacturing environment, and especially at the Swedish remanufacturer Scandi-Toner AB. The analysis shows that lean production principles can be applied in remanufacturing environments, with some constraints. For the case company the study showed that for example the workshop layout could be improved significantly according to lean production principles. The one major conclusion that can be drawn from this analysis are that the inherent characteristics of variable processing times and uncertainty in materials recovered have the major negative impact for implementing a lean production process. Vice versa, given an accurate supply of parts for reassembly, all the appropriate principles of a lean production material flow can be implemented in the phases of reassembly and testing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2007
Series
IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, ISSN 1095-2020
Keyword
Lean Productlon, Value stream mapping, Rapid Plant Assesment, Remanufacturing
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13325 (URN)10.1109/ISEE.2007.369397 (DOI)000248562400042 ()1-4244-0861-X (ISBN)
Conference
15th International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment (ISEE) , May 7-10, Orlando, USA
Available from: 2008-05-27 Created: 2008-05-27 Last updated: 2012-08-23
7. Material handling in the remanufacturing industry: a case study of a diesel engine remanufacturing process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Material handling in the remanufacturing industry: a case study of a diesel engine remanufacturing process
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of CIRP Life Cycle Engineering Seminar, 12th edition, April 3-5, Laboratorie 3S, Grenoble France, 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13326 (URN)
Available from: 2008-05-27 Created: 2008-05-27 Last updated: 2009-06-09

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  • Other style
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  • en-GB
  • en-US
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