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Regional energy system optimization - Potential for a regional heat market
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Gävle University.
Optensys Energianal.
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2009 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 86, no 4, 441-451 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy supply companies and industrial plants are likely to face new situations due to, for example, the introduction of new energy legislation, increased fuel prices and increased environmental awareness. These new prerequisites provide companies with new challenges but also new possibilities from which to benefit. Increased energy efficiency within companies and increased cooperation between different operators are two alternatives to meet the new conditions. A region characterized by a high density of energy-intensive processes is used in this study to find the economic potential of connecting three industrial plants and four energy companies, within three local district heating systems, to a regional heat market, in which different operators provide heat to a joint district heating grid. Also, different investment alternatives are studied. The results show that the economical potential for a heat market amounts to between 5 and 26 million EUR/year with payback times ranging from two to eleven years. However, the investment costs and the net benefit for the total system need to be allotted to the different operators, as they benefit economically to different extents from the introduction of a heat market. It is also shown that the emissions of CO2 from the joint system would decrease compared to separate operation of the systems. However, the valuation of CO2 emissions from electricity production is important as the difference of emitted CO2 between the accounting methods exceeds 650 kton/year for some scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 86, no 4, 441-451 p.
Keyword [en]
District heating, CO2, Heat market, Optimization, Economic evaluation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17168DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.09.012OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-17168DiVA: diva2:202159
Available from: 2009-03-07 Created: 2009-03-07 Last updated: 2009-06-10
In thesis
1. Energy systems analysis of Swedish pulp and paper industries from a regional cooperation perspective: Case study modeling and optimization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy systems analysis of Swedish pulp and paper industries from a regional cooperation perspective: Case study modeling and optimization
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The industrial sector uses about one third of the energy end-use in the world. Since energy use in many cases highly affects both the local and global environment negatively, it is of common interest to increase energy efficiency within industries. Furthermore, seen from the industrial perspective, it is also important to reduce dependency on energy resources with unstable prices in order to obtain economic predictability.

In this thesis, the energy-saving potential within the chemical pulp and paper sector is analyzed. One market pulp mill and one integrated pulp and paper mill were studied as cases. Energy system changes at the mills were analyzed through cost minimization. The thesis focuses on principal energy issues such as finding the most promising alternatives for use of industrial excess heat, possible investments in electricity generation and choice of fuel. In order to find synergies, the same system was optimized first from the perspective of different operators respectively, and then from a joint regional perspective. Also, the prerequisites for a regional heat market in the region were analyzed.

This thesis reveals that the use of excess heat from pulp and paper mills for district heating does not generally conflict with process integration measures. This is partly because of the great availability of industrial excess heat and partly because the different purposes require different temperatures and thereby do not compete. Rather, the results show that they strengthen each other since steam and hot water of higher temperatures are made available for district heating when hot water of lower temperature is used for process integration. However, there are cases when the conditions are complicated by preexisting technical solutions within a system. In these cases, a combination of measures could be necessary.

Furthermore, it is concluded that energy cooperation in terms of a heat market between municipalities and industries in the studied region gives opportunity for positive synergies. Switching from expensive fuels such as oil to less expensive biofuel in the region proved to be particularly beneficial. Expanding the capacity for combined heat and power generation is also beneficial for the region as well as increased use of industrial excess heat for district heating. The most financially beneficial scenarios also have the greatest potential for CO2 emission reduction; the emissions would be reduced by about 700 thousand tonnes CO2/year for the region in those scenarios.

Abstract [sv]

Den industriella energianvändningen utgör en tredjedel av världens totala energianvändning. Eftersom energianvändning i många fall har negativ miljöpåverkan både lokalt och globalt är det av allmänt intresse att öka industriernas energieffektivitet. Sett ur industriernas perspektiv är det dessutom viktigt att minska beroendet av bränslen med osäkra priser för att uppnå ekonomisk förutsägbarhet.

I den här avhandlingen analyseras energibesparingspotentialen inom massa- och pappersindustrin. Ett fristående kemiskt massabruk och ett integrerat kemiskt massa- och pappersbruk har studerats. Förändringar i energisystemen på bruken analyserades genom kostnadsminimeringar. Avhandlingen fokuserar på principiella energifrågor, som att utvärdera olika sätt att använda industriellt spillvärme, investeringar i elgenerering och val av bränsle. För att hitta synergier optimerades samma system ur olika aktörers perspektiv och sedan ur ett regionalt perspektiv. Även förutsättningarna för en regional värmemarknad analyserades.

Avhandlingen visar att användandet av överskottsvärme från massa- och pappersindustrin till fjärrvärme generellt sett inte står i konflikt med processintegreringsåtgärder inom bruken. Detta beror delvis på att stora mängder överskottsvärme finns tillgängliga och delvis på att det är olika temperaturnivåer som behövs till de olika syftena som därför inte konkurrerar. Resultaten visar snarare att de två åtgärderna stärker varandra eftersom processintegrering gör att större mängder varmvatten av högre temperatur blir tillgängliga för fjärrvärme. Det finns dock fall då förutsättningarna kompliceras av redan befintliga tekniska lösningar inom ett system. I dessa fall kan det vara nödvändigt med en kombination av åtgärder.

Vidare dras slutsatsen att energisamarbete mellan kommuner och industrier i form av en värmemarknad ger möjlighet till positiva synergier i den studerade regionen. Särskilt lönsamt visade det sig vara att byta från dyra bränslen såsom olja till billigare bränslen som biobränslen. Att utöka kraftvärmekapaciteten inom värmemarknaden är också lönsamt liksom utökat användande av industriell spillvärme till fjärrvärme. De fall som var mest ekonomiskt lönsamma har även störst möjlighet till minskning av CO2-utsläpp; utsläppen från regionen skulle kunna minskas med cirka 700 000 ton CO2/år i dessa fall.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, 2008
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1194
Keyword
Industrial energy system, Optimization, District heating, Energy audit, Co-operation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-11673 (URN)978-91-7393-874-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-06-02, C3, Hus C, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-05-09 Created: 2008-05-09 Last updated: 2009-06-10

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