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Catalysis and Site-Specific Modification of Glutathione Transferases Enabled by Rational Design
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes the rational design of a novel enzyme, a thiolester hydrolase, derived from human glutathione transferase (GST) A1-1 by the introduction of a single histidine residue. The first section of the thesis describes the design and the determination of the reaction mechanism. The design was based on the crystal structure of human GST A1-1 complexed with S-benzylglutathione. The resulting enzyme, A216H, catalyzed the hydrolysis of the non-natural substrate GSB, a thiolester of glutathione and benzoic acid. The reaction followed saturation kinetics with a kcat of 0.00078 min-1 and KM of 5 μM. The rate constant ratio, (kcat/KM)/kuncat, was found to be more than 107 M-1. The introduction of a single His residue in position 216 opened up a novel reaction pathway in human GST A1-1 and is a nice example of catalytic promiscuity. The substrate requirements were investigated and A216H was found to be selective since only two out of 18 GS-thiolesters tested were substrates for A216H. The reaction mechanism of the A216H-catalyzed hydrolysis of GSB was determined and found to proceed via an acyl intermediate at Y9. The hydrolysis was catalyzed by H216 that acts as a general base and the deacylation was found to be the rate-determining step. The Y9-intermediate could be selectively trapped by oxygen nucleophiles and primary alcohols, in particular 1-propanol and trifluoroethanol, were the most efficient. In addition, saturation kinetics was obtained in the acyl transfer reaction with 1-propanol indicating the presence of a second binding site in A216H.

The second section of this thesis describes the site-specific covalent modification of human GST A1-1. The addition of GSB to the wild-type protein results in a site-specific benzoylation of only one tyrosine residue, Y9, out of ten present in the protein (one out of totally 51 nucleophiles). The reaction was tested with five GST classes (Alpha, Mu, Pi, Theta and Omega) and found to be specific for the Alpha class isoenzymes. The covalent modification reaction was further refined to target a single lysine residue, K216, providing a more stable linkage in the form of an amide bond. The reaction was found to be versatile and approximately 50% of the GS-thiolesters tested acylated K216, including a fluorophore.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi , 2005.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 964
Keyword [en]
Catalysis, Glutathione Transferases, Rational design, Protein design, Site-specific modification, thiolester hydrolysis
National Category
Biocatalysis and Enzyme Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-3962ISBN: 91-85457-09-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-3962DiVA: diva2:20491
Public defence
2005-09-30, 09:15 (English)
Supervisors
Note

On the day of the public defence the status of article II was: Submitted and article IV was: In press.

Available from: 2005-09-23 Created: 2005-09-23 Last updated: 2017-10-27
List of papers
1. Programmed Delivery of Novel Functional Groups to the Alpha Class Glutathione Transferases
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Programmed Delivery of Novel Functional Groups to the Alpha Class Glutathione Transferases
2003 (English)In: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, Vol. 42, no 34, 10260-10268 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Here we describe a new route to site- and class-specific protein modification that will allow us to create novel functional proteins with artificial chemical groups. Glutathione transferases from the alpha but not the mu, pi, omega, or theta classes can be rapidly and site-specifically acylated with thioesters of glutathione (GS-thioesters) that are similar to compounds that have been demonstrated to occur in vivo. The human isoforms A1-1, A2-2, A3-3, and A4-4 from the alpha class all react with the reagent at a conserved tyrosine residue (Y9) that is crucial in catalysis of detoxication reactions. The yield of modified protein is virtually quantitative in less than 30 min under optimized conditions. The acylated product is stable for more than 24 h at pH 7 and 25 °C. The modification is reversible in the presence of excess glutathione, but the labeled protein can be protected by adding S-methylglutathione. The stability of the ester with respect to added glutathione depends on the acyl moiety. The reaction can also take place in Escherichia coli lysates doped with alpha class glutathione transferases. A control substance that lacks the peptidyl backbone required for binding to the glutathione transferases acylates surface-exposed lysines. There is some acyl group specificity since one out of the three different GS-thioesters that we tried was not able to acylate Y9.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13363 (URN)10.1021/bi0343525 (DOI)
Available from: 2005-09-23 Created: 2005-09-23 Last updated: 2017-10-27
2. Incorporation of a Single His Residue by Rational Design Enables Thiol-ester Hydrolysis by Human Glutathione Transferase A1-1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incorporation of a Single His Residue by Rational Design Enables Thiol-ester Hydrolysis by Human Glutathione Transferase A1-1
Show others...
2004 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 101, no 36, 13163-13167 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13364 (URN)
Available from: 2005-09-23 Created: 2005-09-23 Last updated: 2017-10-27
3. A Promiscuous Glutathione Transferase Transformed into a Selective Thiolester Hydrolase
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Promiscuous Glutathione Transferase Transformed into a Selective Thiolester Hydrolase
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2006 (English)In: Organic and biomolecular chemistry, ISSN 1477-0520, E-ISSN 1477-0539, Vol. 4, no 1, 90-97 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13365 (URN)10.1039/b510115h (DOI)
Available from: 2005-09-23 Created: 2005-09-23 Last updated: 2017-10-27
4. Nucleophile Selectivity in the Acyl Transfer Reaction of a Designed Enzyme
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nucleophile Selectivity in the Acyl Transfer Reaction of a Designed Enzyme
2005 (English)In: Biopolymers, Vol. 79, no 6, 292-299 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The acyl transfer reaction of S-glutathionyl benzoate (GSB) is catalyzed by a rationally designed mutant of human glutathione transferase A1-1, A216H. The catalyzed reaction proceeds via the formation of an acyl intermediate and has been studied in the presence of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur nucleophiles to determine the selectivity with regards to nucleophile structure. Methanol was previously shown to react with the acyl intermediate and form the corresponding ester, methylbenzoate, under a significant rate enhancement. In the present investigation, the dependence on nucleophile structure and reactivity has been investigated. Ethane thiol gave rise to a larger rate enhancement in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction than ethanol, whereas ethylamine did not increase the reaction rate. The reactivities toward the acyl intermediate of primary and secondary alcohols with similar pKa values depended on the structure of the aliphatic chain, and 1-propanol was the most efficient alcohol. The reactivity of the oxygen nucleophiles was also found to depend strongly on pKa as 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, with a pKa of 12.4, was the most efficient nucleophile of all that were tested. Saturation kinetics was observed in the case of 1-propanol, indicating a second binding site in the active site of A216H. The nucleophile selectivity of A216H provides the knowledge base needed for the further reengineering of A216H towards alternative substrate specificities.

Keyword
acyl transfer, enzyme catalysis, glutathione transferase, protein design, selectivity
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13366 (URN)10.1002/bip.20351 (DOI)
Available from: 2005-09-23 Created: 2005-09-23 Last updated: 2017-10-27
5. Ligand-Directed Labeling of a Single Lysine Residue in hGST A1-1 Mutants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ligand-Directed Labeling of a Single Lysine Residue in hGST A1-1 Mutants
2005 (English)In: Bioconjugate chemistry, ISSN 1043-1802, Vol. 16, no 4, 1009-1018 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previously, we discovered that human glutathione transferase (hGST) A1-1 could be site-specifically acylated on a tyrosine residue (Y9) to form ester products using thiolesters of glutathione (GS-thiolesters) as acylating reagents. Out of a total of 20 GS-thiolester reagents tested, 15 (75%) are accepted by hGST A1-1 and thus this is a very versatile reaction. The present investigation was aimed at obtaining a more stable product, an amide bond, between the acyl group and the protein, in order to further increase the value of the reaction. Three lysine mutants (Y9K, A216K, and Y9F/A216K) were therefore prepared and screened against a panel of 18 GS-thiolesters. The Y9K mutant did not react with any of the reagents. The double mutant Y9F/A216K reacted with only one reagent, but in contrast, the A216K mutant could be acylated at the introduced lysine 216 with eight (44%) of the GS-thiolesters. The reaction can take place in the presence of glutathione and even in a crude cell lysate for five (28%) of the reagents. Through the screening process we obtained some basic rules relating to reagent requirements. We have thus produced a mutant (A216K) that can be rapidly and site-specifically modified at a lysine residue to form a stable amide linkage with a range of acyl groups. One of the successful reagents is a fluorophore that potentially can be used in downstream protein purification and protein fusion applications.

Keyword
human GST A1-1, site-specific covalent modification, tyrosine 9, alanine 216, lysine mutant, pre-programmed, ligand-directed protein modification, intramolecular acyl-transfer reaction
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13367 (URN)10.1021/bc050111t (DOI)
Available from: 2005-09-23 Created: 2005-09-23 Last updated: 2017-10-27

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