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On the Surface of Conducting Polymers: Electrochemical Switching of Color and Wettability in Conjugated Polymer Devices
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2005 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Since the discovery in 1977 that conjugated polymers can be doped to achieve almost metallic electronic conduction, the research field of conducting polymers has escalated, with applications such as light emitting diodes, solar cells, thin film transistors, electrochemical transistors, logic circuits and sensors. The materials can be chemically modified during their synthesis in order to tailor the desired mechanical, electronic and optical properties of the final product. Polymers are also generally possible to process from solution, and regular roll-to-roll printing techniques can therefore be used for manufacturing of electronic components on flexible substrates like plastic or paper. On top of that, the nature of conjugated polymers enables the creation of devices with novel properties, which are not possible to achieve by using inorganic materials such as silicon.

The work presented in this thesis mainly focuses on devices that utilize two rather unique properties of conducting polymers. Conducting polymers are generally electrochromic, i.e. they change color upon electrochemical oxidation or reduction, and can therefore be used as both conductor and pixel element in simple organic displays. As a result of the electrochemical reaction, some polymers also alter their surface properties and have proven to be suitable materials for organic electronic wettability switches. Control of surface wettability has applications in such diverse areas as printing techniques, micro-fluidics and biomaterials.

The aim of the thesis is to briefly describe the physical and chemical background of the materials used in organic electronic devices. Topics include molecular properties and doping of conjugated polymers, electrochromism, surface tension etc. This slightly theoretical part is followed by a more detailed explanation of device design, functionality and characterization. Finally, a glance into future projects will also be presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap , 2005. , 53 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1195
Keyword [en]
Conjugated polymer, electrochemistry, surface energy, electrochromism, contact angle
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-4268ISBN: 91-85457-28-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-4268DiVA: diva2:20580
Presentation
2005-09-30, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitetet, Norrköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
ISRN/Report code: LiU-TEK-LIC-2005:50Available from: 2005-10-07 Created: 2005-10-07 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Solid-state Organic Electronic Wettability Switch
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Solid-state Organic Electronic Wettability Switch
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2004 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, Vol. 16, no 4, 316-320 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
Conjugated polymers, Electronics, Polymers, conjugated, Redox activity, Switches
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14640 (URN)10.1002/adma.200306131 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-02-03
2. Electronic Modulation of an Electrochemically induced Wettability Gradient to Control Water Movement on a Polyaniline Surface
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic Modulation of an Electrochemically induced Wettability Gradient to Control Water Movement on a Polyaniline Surface
2006 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, Vol. 515, no 4, 2003-2008 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wettability gradients can be electronically controlled in a multiple-electrode electrochemical structure that consists of a solid electrolyte and the conducting polymer polyaniline doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as the active surface. A bias applied directly between a counter electrode and the surface to be switched determines the initial water contact angle, while the potential between two electrodes on either side of the switch surface, connected to each other and the switch surface only through an electrolyte, induces a surface energy gradient. The spreading of water on the switchable surface can be modulated with both potentials. The wettability at each point of the switch surface is correlated to the local electrochromic state (visible color) of the material, offering a visual indication of how a water drop will spread before it is applied. This new device has potential applications in scientific areas such as micro-fluidics and biomaterials.

Keyword
Electrochemistry, Wetting, Surface energy, Organic conductor
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14641 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2006.04.001 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-02-03
3. Evaluation of active materials designed for use in printable electrochromic polymer displays
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of active materials designed for use in printable electrochromic polymer displays
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2006 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 4, 2485-2492 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a step towards roll-to-roll production of polymer-based electrochromic displays on flexible substrates, nine thiophene-based polymers and copolymers designed to increase the contrast of displays based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene-sulfonic acid) have been synthesized and evaluated with respect to their absorbance (contrast), switch speed, and ability to switch reversibly in a water-based electrolyte. The results of the evaluation, including cyclic voltammetry and optically visible absorption, provide a basis for understanding what an aqueous electrolyte electrochromic display requires in terms of oxidation potential and material stability, and the effect of chemical structure on the reversibility and speed of switching. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keyword
Electrochromic display; Conjugated polymers; Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-37443 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2006.07.149 (DOI)35830 (Local ID)35830 (Archive number)35830 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13

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Isaksson, Joakim

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