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Increased system benefit from cogeneration due to cooperation between district heating utility and industry
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2004 (English)In: Proceedings of the 9th international symposium on district heating and cooling, Espoo, Finland, 30-31 August., 2004, 97-104 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

District heating and steam supply in the town Örnsköldsvik in northern Sweden is in focus for this study. Low temperature waste heat from pulp manufacturing in the Domsjö mill is now utilised for district heating production in heat pumps, which dominate district heating supply. Based on this traditional cooperation between the local district heating utility and the pulp industry, the parties discuss a partial outsourcing of the industrial steam supply to the utility, which may enable beneficial system solutions for both actors. The local utility must find a new location for a heating plant because a railway line is being built at the heat pump site. Planning for a new combined heat and power production (CHP) plant has started but its location is uncertain. If the plant can be situated close to the mill it can, besides district heating, produce steam, which can be supplied to adjacent industries. The municipality and its local utility are also considering investing in a waste incineration plant. But is waste incineration suitable for Örnsköldsvik and how would it interact with cogeneration?

Alternative cases have been evaluated with the MODEST energy system optimisation model, which minimises the cost for satisfying district heating and steam demand. The most profitable solution is to invest in a CHP plant and a waste incineration plant. Considering carbon dioxide emissions, the results from applying a local or a global perspective are remarkably different. In the latter case, generated electricity is assumed to replace power from coal condensing plants elsewhere in the North-European power grid. Therefore, minimum global CO2 emissions are achieved through maximal electricity production in a CHP plant. From this viewpoint, waste incineration should not be introduced because it would obstruct cogeneration. The study is carried out within the program Sustainable municipality run by the Swedish Energy Agency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. 97-104 p.
Keyword [en]
District heating, cogeneration, optimisation, waste incineration, industrial steam supply
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17213Local ID: TKK-ENY--20OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-17213DiVA: diva2:207458
Available from: 2009-03-11 Created: 2009-03-11 Last updated: 2009-05-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Efficient heat supply and use from an energy-system and climate perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient heat supply and use from an energy-system and climate perspective
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to illustrate whether the heat demand in district heating systems can be seen as a resource that enables efficient energy utilization, how this can be achieved and to discuss consequences of this assumption. Based on the answers to posed research questions and on the studies included in this thesis, it is concluded that the hypothesis “A common system approach for energy supply and heat demand will show climate and economic efficient solutions” is true.

In cold-climate countries, energy for heating of buildings is essential and heating options that interplay with the power system through electricity use or generation have potential for efficiency improvements. In Sweden, district heating is used extensively, especially in large buildings but to a growing extent also for small houses. Some industrial heat loads and absorption cooling can complement space heating demand so that the production resources may be more evenly utilised during the seasons of the year.

Rising electricity prices in recent years cause problems for the extensive use of electric heating in Sweden and further switching to district heating should be a possible option. To be economically favourable, district-heating systems require a certain heat load density. New low-energy houses and energy-efficiency measures in existing buildings decrease the heat demand in buildings and, thus, in district heating systems. Optimisation models have been used in several studies of large, complex energy systems. Such models allow scenarios with changing policy instruments and changed consumer behaviour to be analysed. Energy efficiency measures as well as good conditions for efficient electricity generation, which can replace old, inefficient plants, are needed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector.

Results when having a European energy perspective to studies of changes in Sweden differ from when having for example a Swedish energy system perspective The effects on global carbon dioxide emissions, when studying combined heat and power electricity generation in Sweden, are greater than it is on local emissions.

Abstract [sv]

Eftersom höjda elpriser under senare år orsakar problem för den stora användningen av elvärme, kommer ytterligare konvertering till fjärrvärme att vara ett möjligt alternativ. För att vara ekonomiskt fördelaktigt kräver fjärrvärme en viss värmetäthet. Nya lågenergihus och energieffektiviseringsåtgärder i befintliga byggnader minskar värmebehovet i byggnaderna och då även i fjärrvärmesystemen.Syftet med denna avhandling är att visa om värmebehovet i fjärrvärmesystem kan betraktas som en resurs som möjliggör ett effektivt energiutnyttjande, hur detta i så fall kan uppnås och att diskutera följderna av att göra ett sådant antagande. Baserat på svaren på ställda forskningsfrågor och studier som genomförts har hypotesen som lyder; En gemensam systemsyn för både tillförsel och användning av energi för uppvärmningsändamål leder till ekonomiskt såväl som ur klimatsynpunkt effektiva lösningar, visat sig stämma.

I länder med kallt klimat är energi för uppvärmning av byggnader viktigt och uppvärmningsalternativ som samverkar med elsystemet genom elanvändning eller elproduktion har potential för effektivitetsförbättringar. I Sverige är fjärrvärmeanvändningen utbredd, speciellt i större byggnader men användningen ökar också i småhus. Vissa industriella värmelaster och absorptionskyla kan fungera som komplement till andra värmebehov i fjärrvärmesystem så att produktionsresurser kan användas mer jämnt fördelat över året.

Optimeringsmodeller har använts i flera studier för stora, komplexa energisystem. I dessa kan scenarier med olika styrmedel och förändrad energianvändning analyseras. Nya användningsområden för spillvärme, som att använda värme till absorptionskyla och att växla från olja och el till fjärrvärme i industriella processer kan också studeras. Energieffektiviseringsåtgärder såväl som bra förutsättningar för effektiv elproduktion, som kan ersätta gamla ineffektiva anläggningar behövs för att minska koldioxidutsläppen från energisektorn.

Resultaten då ett europeiskt energisystemperspektiv använts, för att studera förändringar i Sverige, skiljer sig från när endast ett svenskt systemperspektiv använts. Påverkan på globala koldioxidutsläpp, då elproduktion från kraftvärme i Sverige studeras, är större än vad påverkan på lokala utsläpp är.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009. 72 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1242
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17219 (URN)978-91-7393-694-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-03-06, A35, hus A,, Campus Vall, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-03-11 Created: 2009-03-11 Last updated: 2009-03-11Bibliographically approved

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