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Efficient heat supply and use from an energy-system and climate perspective
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to illustrate whether the heat demand in district heating systems can be seen as a resource that enables efficient energy utilization, how this can be achieved and to discuss consequences of this assumption. Based on the answers to posed research questions and on the studies included in this thesis, it is concluded that the hypothesis “A common system approach for energy supply and heat demand will show climate and economic efficient solutions” is true.

In cold-climate countries, energy for heating of buildings is essential and heating options that interplay with the power system through electricity use or generation have potential for efficiency improvements. In Sweden, district heating is used extensively, especially in large buildings but to a growing extent also for small houses. Some industrial heat loads and absorption cooling can complement space heating demand so that the production resources may be more evenly utilised during the seasons of the year.

Rising electricity prices in recent years cause problems for the extensive use of electric heating in Sweden and further switching to district heating should be a possible option. To be economically favourable, district-heating systems require a certain heat load density. New low-energy houses and energy-efficiency measures in existing buildings decrease the heat demand in buildings and, thus, in district heating systems. Optimisation models have been used in several studies of large, complex energy systems. Such models allow scenarios with changing policy instruments and changed consumer behaviour to be analysed. Energy efficiency measures as well as good conditions for efficient electricity generation, which can replace old, inefficient plants, are needed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector.

Results when having a European energy perspective to studies of changes in Sweden differ from when having for example a Swedish energy system perspective The effects on global carbon dioxide emissions, when studying combined heat and power electricity generation in Sweden, are greater than it is on local emissions.

Abstract [sv]

Eftersom höjda elpriser under senare år orsakar problem för den stora användningen av elvärme, kommer ytterligare konvertering till fjärrvärme att vara ett möjligt alternativ. För att vara ekonomiskt fördelaktigt kräver fjärrvärme en viss värmetäthet. Nya lågenergihus och energieffektiviseringsåtgärder i befintliga byggnader minskar värmebehovet i byggnaderna och då även i fjärrvärmesystemen.Syftet med denna avhandling är att visa om värmebehovet i fjärrvärmesystem kan betraktas som en resurs som möjliggör ett effektivt energiutnyttjande, hur detta i så fall kan uppnås och att diskutera följderna av att göra ett sådant antagande. Baserat på svaren på ställda forskningsfrågor och studier som genomförts har hypotesen som lyder; En gemensam systemsyn för både tillförsel och användning av energi för uppvärmningsändamål leder till ekonomiskt såväl som ur klimatsynpunkt effektiva lösningar, visat sig stämma.

I länder med kallt klimat är energi för uppvärmning av byggnader viktigt och uppvärmningsalternativ som samverkar med elsystemet genom elanvändning eller elproduktion har potential för effektivitetsförbättringar. I Sverige är fjärrvärmeanvändningen utbredd, speciellt i större byggnader men användningen ökar också i småhus. Vissa industriella värmelaster och absorptionskyla kan fungera som komplement till andra värmebehov i fjärrvärmesystem så att produktionsresurser kan användas mer jämnt fördelat över året.

Optimeringsmodeller har använts i flera studier för stora, komplexa energisystem. I dessa kan scenarier med olika styrmedel och förändrad energianvändning analyseras. Nya användningsområden för spillvärme, som att använda värme till absorptionskyla och att växla från olja och el till fjärrvärme i industriella processer kan också studeras. Energieffektiviseringsåtgärder såväl som bra förutsättningar för effektiv elproduktion, som kan ersätta gamla ineffektiva anläggningar behövs för att minska koldioxidutsläppen från energisektorn.

Resultaten då ett europeiskt energisystemperspektiv använts, för att studera förändringar i Sverige, skiljer sig från när endast ett svenskt systemperspektiv använts. Påverkan på globala koldioxidutsläpp, då elproduktion från kraftvärme i Sverige studeras, är större än vad påverkan på lokala utsläpp är.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2009. , 72 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1242
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17219ISBN: 978-91-7393-694-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-17219DiVA: diva2:207509
Public defence
2009-03-06, A35, hus A,, Campus Vall, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-03-11 Created: 2009-03-11 Last updated: 2009-03-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Stockholm CHP potential: opportunity for CO2 reductions?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stockholm CHP potential: opportunity for CO2 reductions?
2007 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 35, no 9, 4650-4660 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The potential for combined heat and power (CHP) generation in Stockholm is large and a total heat demand of about 10 TWh/year can be met in a renewed large district heating system. This model of the Stockholm district heating system shows that CHP generation can increase from 8% in 2004 to 15.5% of the total electricity generation in Sweden. Increased electricity costs in recent years have awakened an interest to invest in new electricity generation. Since renewable alternatives are favoured by green certificates, bio-fuelled CHP is most profitable at low electricity prices. Since heat demand in the district heating network sets the limit for possible electricity generation, a CHP alternative with a high electricity to heat ratio will be more profitable at when electricity prices are high. The efficient energy use in CHP has the potential to contribute to reductions in carbon dioxide emissions in Europe, when they are required and the European electricity market is working perfectly. The potential in Stockholm exceeds Sweden's undertakings under the Kyoto protocol and national reduction goals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2007
Keyword
District heating, CHP, CO2
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17211 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2007.03.024 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-03-11 Created: 2009-03-11 Last updated: 2009-04-25Bibliographically approved
2. Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs
2007 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 11, 5774-5783 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The most extensive action targeting the adoption of energy efficiency measures in small- and medium-sized manufacturing industries in Sweden over the past 15 years was project Highland. This paper presents an evaluation of the first part of this local industrial energy programme, which shows an adoption rate of more than 40% when both measures that have already been implemented and measures that are planned to be implemented are included. A comparison between this programme and another major ongoing programme for the Swedish energy-intensive industry indicates that the approach used in project Highland aimed at small- and medium-sized industries is an effective way to increase energy efficiency in the Swedish industry. The major barriers to energy efficiency among the firms were related to the low priority of the energy efficiency issue.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2007
Keyword
Energy efficiency, Energy audits, Industrial energy programmes
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12512 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2007.06.013 (DOI)
Note
Original publication: Patrik Thollander, Maria Danestig and Patrik Rohdin, Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency - Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs, 2007, Energy Policy, (35), 11, 5774-5783. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2007.06.013. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Increased use of district heating in industrial processes - Impacts on heat load duration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased use of district heating in industrial processes - Impacts on heat load duration
2009 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 86, no 11, 2327-2334 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Current knowledge of the potential for an increased use of industrial district heating (DH) due to conversions of industrial processes to DH is limited. In this paper, a Method for Heat Load Analysis (MeHLA) for exploring industrial DH conversions has been developed. This method can be a helpful tool for analyzing the impact different industrial processes have on the local DH system, when processes that utilize electricity and other fuels, convert to utilizing DH instead. Heat loads for different types of industries and processes are analyzed according to characteristics such as temperature levels and time dependency. MeHLA has been used to analyze 34 Swedish industries and the method demonstrates how conversion of industrial processes to DH can result in heat load duration curves that are less outdoor temperature-dependent and more evenly distributed over the year. An evenly distributed heat load curve can result in increased annual operating time for base load DH plants such as cogeneration plants, leading to increased electricity generation. In addition to the positive effects for the DH load duration curve, the conversions to DH can also lead to an 11% reduction in the use of electricity, a 40% reduction in the use of fossil fuels and a total energy end-use saving of 6% in the industries. Converting the industrial processes to DH will also lead to a potential reduction of the global carbon dioxide emissions by 112,000 tonnes per year.

Keyword
District heating, heat load duration curve, industrial heat load, global CO2
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17212 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.03.011 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-03-11 Created: 2009-03-11 Last updated: 2010-09-01Bibliographically approved
4. Increased system benefit from cogeneration due to cooperation between district heating utility and industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased system benefit from cogeneration due to cooperation between district heating utility and industry
2004 (English)In: Proceedings of the 9th international symposium on district heating and cooling, Espoo, Finland, 30-31 August., 2004, 97-104 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

District heating and steam supply in the town Örnsköldsvik in northern Sweden is in focus for this study. Low temperature waste heat from pulp manufacturing in the Domsjö mill is now utilised for district heating production in heat pumps, which dominate district heating supply. Based on this traditional cooperation between the local district heating utility and the pulp industry, the parties discuss a partial outsourcing of the industrial steam supply to the utility, which may enable beneficial system solutions for both actors. The local utility must find a new location for a heating plant because a railway line is being built at the heat pump site. Planning for a new combined heat and power production (CHP) plant has started but its location is uncertain. If the plant can be situated close to the mill it can, besides district heating, produce steam, which can be supplied to adjacent industries. The municipality and its local utility are also considering investing in a waste incineration plant. But is waste incineration suitable for Örnsköldsvik and how would it interact with cogeneration?

Alternative cases have been evaluated with the MODEST energy system optimisation model, which minimises the cost for satisfying district heating and steam demand. The most profitable solution is to invest in a CHP plant and a waste incineration plant. Considering carbon dioxide emissions, the results from applying a local or a global perspective are remarkably different. In the latter case, generated electricity is assumed to replace power from coal condensing plants elsewhere in the North-European power grid. Therefore, minimum global CO2 emissions are achieved through maximal electricity production in a CHP plant. From this viewpoint, waste incineration should not be introduced because it would obstruct cogeneration. The study is carried out within the program Sustainable municipality run by the Swedish Energy Agency.

Keyword
District heating, cogeneration, optimisation, waste incineration, industrial steam supply
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17213 (URN)TKK-ENY--20 (Local ID)TKK-ENY--20 (Archive number)TKK-ENY--20 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-03-11 Created: 2009-03-11 Last updated: 2009-05-08Bibliographically approved
5. Modelling the impact of policy instruments on district heating operations: experiences from Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling the impact of policy instruments on district heating operations: experiences from Sweden
2006 (English)In: 10th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling, Hanover, Germany, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Emission allowances aim at reducing carbon dioxide emissions in the European Union. Feed-in tariffs and green certificates increase renewable electricity generation in some countries. Undesired energy carriers, such as fossil fuels, can be taxed to decrease consumption. In Sweden, monetary policy instruments have been used for many years, which has influenced district-heating utilities’ operations and investments.

The energy system optimisation model MODEST may help elucidating the impact of policy instruments on choices of fuels and plants. The model can minimise operation and investment costs for satisfying district heating demand, considering revenues from electricity sales and waste reception. It has been used to analyse heat and electricity production for 50 local Swedish utilities. This paper shows how some plants, systems and policy instruments have been modelled and results from some case studies. It may help analysts who face policy instruments, which probably will have a growing influence on district heating operations.

Policy instruments should reflect external costs and induce behaviour that is beneficial from an overall viewpoint. Swedish fossil-fuel taxes hampered cogeneration during many years. Earlier, fuel input could be freely allocated to output energy forms and wood was often used for heat production and coal for electricity generation to minimise taxes. Now, lower taxes promote fossil cogeneration but green certificates make it more profitable to invest in renewable electricity generation.

Carbon dioxide emission allowances can reduce local emissions due to districtheating and electricity production significantly at current price levels but the impact depends on allowance price. With emission trading, investment in a natural-gas-fired cogeneration plant may be beneficial for some utilities due to high electricity prices in the European electricity market, partly caused by emission allowances.

District-heating demand can enable utilisation of resources that otherwise would be of no value. A landfill ban now increases waste incineration, which may reduce industrial waste heat utilisation and heat disposal from cogeneration plants and thereby decrease electricity production. A tax on incinerated waste may reduce the profitability of investing in waste incineration.

Keyword
Energy policy, taxes, green certificates, emission allowances, CHP
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14204 (URN)
Available from: 2007-01-04 Created: 2007-01-04 Last updated: 2009-05-18Bibliographically approved
6. Local development possibilities for sustainable energy supply and use in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local development possibilities for sustainable energy supply and use in Sweden
2007 (English)In: In B. Frostell, Å. Danielsson, L. Hagberg, B.-O. Linnér, E. Lisberg Jensen (eds., Science for Sustainable Development - The Social Challenge with emphasis on conditions for change, Proceedings from the 2nd VHU Conference, Linköping 6-7 September, Uppsala: VHU, 2007Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Large structural changes are necessary to reduce the resource use in industrialised countries to a sustainable level. Modifications of municipalities’ normal operations can contribute to a more ecologically, economically and socially sustainable society through, for example, promotion of measures concerning energy conservation and renewable energy supply. In the Swedish Energy Agency’s Sustainable municipality programme, it is developed how spatial plans of ground use and building development can promote local renewable energy sources and efficient energy utilisation. Energy issues can be integrated in spatial planning through scenarios of future energy supply and use, which are discussed by local stakeholders. It can be shown how wall insulation, solar heating and heat recovery can reduce primary energy demand and that switching from electricity to biofuel can reduce CO2 emissions. The indicator heat load density depends on building structure and shows, for instance, preconditions for district heating, which often is a favourable heating option. If the local energy utility is involved in spatial planning, it may facilitate the introduction of temporary solutions, such as pellets boilers, to make more customers chose district heating in areas where the network is delayed. District heating systems enable efficient electricity generation in combined heat and power (CHP) plants, which can be elucidated by an optimisation model that considers economy and environment. Strategic spatial planning can promote establishment and expansion of district heating networks.

Keyword
District heating, energy conservation, heat load density, municipality, renewable
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17216 (URN)
Available from: 2009-03-11 Created: 2009-03-11 Last updated: 2009-03-11Bibliographically approved
7. Efficient heat resource utilisation in energy systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient heat resource utilisation in energy systems
2008 (English)In: Energy in Europe: Economics, Policy and Strategy, Filip Magnusson and Oscar W. Bengtsson (eds.) / [ed] Oscar W. Bengtsson,Filip L. Magnusson, Nova Publishers , 2008, 1, 315-359 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy constitutes the motive force of the civilisation and it determines, in a high degree, the level of economy development as a whole. Despite the increase use of different type of energy, particularly, renewable energy sources, fossil fuels will continue dominating the energy combinations in the world near future. However, oil reserves are declining and this situation would have a negative impact in the future economic development of many countries all over the world. In Europe, the import energy dependency is rising. Unless Europe can make domestic energy more competitive in the next 20 to 30 years, around 70% of the European Unions energy requirements, compared to 50% today, will be met by imported products some of them from regions threatened by insecurity. Now, the energy requirements of the different countries are so high that, for the first time in the humanity's history, there is a need to consider different types of available energy sources and their reserves to plan the economic development of the countries. At the same time, there is also a need to use these sources in the most efficient possible manner in order to sustain that development. The EU leads the world in demand management, in promoting new and renewable forms of energy. If the EU backs up a new common policy with a common voice on energy questions, Europe can lead the global search for energy solutions. However, EU must act urgently because it takes many years to bring innovation on stream in the energy sector, as well as to make productive the investments that are need to update the energy infrastructure in the region. This book provides leading-edge research on this field of study from around the globe.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nova Publishers, 2008 Edition: 1
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17217 (URN)978-1-60456-829-5 (ISBN)1-604-5682-9-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2009-03-11 Created: 2009-03-11 Last updated: 2013-05-24Bibliographically approved
8. A multidisciplinary and interactive method for exploring energy systems in municipalities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A multidisciplinary and interactive method for exploring energy systems in municipalities
2009 (English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Due to environmental concerns and changed market conditions in the energy system, the preconditions for energy use and production in Sweden have changed in recent years. To be able to manage these new demands on a local level, municipalities need to adopt new methods to deal with unstructured and complex situations. This article presents a method for multidisciplinary and interactive exploration of energy systems at the local level. The method creates opportunities for local actors to discuss and negotiate the necessary actions within the local energy system.

Keyword
Energy, local, multidisciplinary, interactive, method
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17218 (URN)
Available from: 2009-03-11 Created: 2009-03-11 Last updated: 2009-03-11Bibliographically approved

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