Drinking water consumption patterns in Sweden
2006 (English)In: Journal of Water and Health, ISSN 1477-8920, Vol. 4, no 4, 511-522 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Estimates on drinking water consumption are necessary in risk assessments on microbial hazardsin drinking water. Large differences in consumption habits between countries have beenreported. In order to establish estimates for the Swedish population, water consumption datafrom a waterborne outbreak investigation (157 people), a small water consumption study(75 people) and a large study on health and environmental factors (10,957 people) were analysed.A lognormal distribution for the daily direct/cold water intake in litres with m¼20.299 ands ¼ 0.570 was fitted to the quantitative data, representing the general population. The averagedaily consumption of tap water as plain drinking water and as heated tap water, e.g. in coffeeand tea, was 0.86 ^ 0.48 l and 0.94 ^ 0.69 l, respectively. Women consumed more cold tap waterthan did men, while men appeared to have a higher consumption of heated tap water. Cold tapwater intake was highest in the oldest age group, ($70 years). The consumption of bottled waterwas very low (mean 0.06 l/d) when compared to other countries.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 4, no 4, 511-522 p.
demographic variables, drinking water consumption, probability distribution, risk assessment, tap water, water intake
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13460OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13460DiVA: diva2:20791