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Drinking water consumption patterns in Sweden
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Department of Epidemiology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI), Solna, Sweden.
Department of Parasitology, Mycology & Water Microbiology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI), Solna, Sweden.
2006 (English)In: Journal of Water and Health, ISSN 1477-8920, Vol. 4, no 4, 511-522 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Estimates on drinking water consumption are necessary in risk assessments on microbial hazardsin drinking water. Large differences in consumption habits between countries have beenreported. In order to establish estimates for the Swedish population, water consumption datafrom a waterborne outbreak investigation (157 people), a small water consumption study(75 people) and a large study on health and environmental factors (10,957 people) were analysed.A lognormal distribution for the daily direct/cold water intake in litres with m¼20.299 ands ¼ 0.570 was fitted to the quantitative data, representing the general population. The averagedaily consumption of tap water as plain drinking water and as heated tap water, e.g. in coffeeand tea, was 0.86 ^ 0.48 l and 0.94 ^ 0.69 l, respectively. Women consumed more cold tap waterthan did men, while men appeared to have a higher consumption of heated tap water. Cold tapwater intake was highest in the oldest age group, ($70 years). The consumption of bottled waterwas very low (mean 0.06 l/d) when compared to other countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 4, no 4, 511-522 p.
Keyword [en]
demographic variables, drinking water consumption, probability distribution, risk assessment, tap water, water intake
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13460OAI: diva2:20791
Available from: 2004-12-19 Created: 2004-12-19 Last updated: 2009-03-17
In thesis
1. Microbial risk assessment and its implications for risk management in urban water systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microbial risk assessment and its implications for risk management in urban water systems
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Infectious disease can be transmitted via various environmental pathways, many of which are incorporated into our water and wastewater systems. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) can be a valuable tool in identifying hazard exposure pathways and estimating their associated health impacts. QMRA can be applied to establish standards and guidelines and has been adopted by the World Health Organisation for the management of risks from water-related infectious diseases. This thesis aims at presenting a holistic approach for the assessment of microbial health risks in urban water and wastewater systems. The procedure of QMRA is presented, together with the data collected for the case studies, and the results are discussed in a risk management framework.

Decentralised drinking water treatment with membranes was shown to be competitive with centralised conventional treatment regarding environmental impacts and health. To attain sufficient die-off of pathogens in order to reduce risks to acceptable levels, facilities that permit the long-term storage of locally collected faeces are required. Issues of operation and mangement are likely to determine the health risks in decentralised systems. While failures in distribution are more likely to result in detectable waterborne disease outbreaks, the number of people at risk of becoming infected with pathogens passing normal treatment, calculated on a yearly basis, can be larger. Site-specific pathogen monitoring of source waters was identified as an important factor for the accurate estimation of risk. Noroviruses, an emerging waterborne pathogen, were shown to have fluctuating concentrations in surface water, with significant peaks during the wintertime. Time series analysis has potential as an early warning system if complemented by regular monitoring to discriminate peaks from random fluctuations. Groups already sensitive to infection, i.e. the elderly, the sick and children, were shown to consume higher volumes of cold tap water than the rest of the population, which may call for special atention in the risk management of drinking water systems. Microbial health risks associated with the handling and reuse of wastewater and sludge were shown to be successfully addressed within the management system Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP). Most exposure points identified could be controlled through easy measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2004. 84 p.
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 304
Quantitative microbial risk assessment, pathogens, urban, decentralised, failures, noroviruses, water consumption, HACCP, drinking water, wastewater, sludge, faeces, risk management
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-4880 (URN)91-85295-98-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-12-10, Elysion, Hus T, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Copyright Agreement: Figure 6-1, page 49 and figure 6-2, page 50 in the summary/introduction are reprinted from Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 2(2) 11-18, with permission from the copyright holders, IWA. Note: the median values are missing in the article but the figures have been corrected in the summary/introduction.Available from: 2004-12-19 Created: 2004-12-19 Last updated: 2012-01-25Bibliographically approved

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Westrell, ThereseStenström, Thor-Axel
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