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QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) and HACCP (hazard analysis critical control points) for management of pathogens in wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and reuse
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Department of Parasitology, Mycology and Environmental Microbiology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
Department of Parasitology, Mycology and Environmental Microbiology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
2004 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 50, no 2, 23-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) was applied for identifying and controlling exposure to pathogenic microorganisms encountered during normal sludge and wastewater handling at a 12,500 m3/d treatment plant utilising tertiary wastewater treatment and mesophilic sludge digestion. The hazardous scenarios considered were human exposure during treatment, handling, soil application and crop consumption, and exposure via water at the wetland-area and recreational swimming. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), including rotavirus, adenovirus, haemorrhagic E. coli, Salmonella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium, was performed in order to prioritise pathogen hazards for control purposes. Human exposures were treated as individual risks but also related to the endemic situation in the general population. The highest individual health risk from a single exposure was via aerosols for workers at the belt press for sludge dewatering (virus infection risk = 1). The largest impact on the community would arise if children ingested sludge at the unprotected storage site, although in the worst-case situation the largest number of infections would arise through vegetables fertilised with sludge and eaten raw (not allowed in Sweden). Acceptable risk for various hazardous scenarios, treatment and/or reuse strategies could be tested in the model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 50, no 2, 23-30 p.
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13462OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13462DiVA: diva2:20793
Available from: 2004-12-19 Created: 2004-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-13
In thesis
1. Microbial risk assessment and its implications for risk management in urban water systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microbial risk assessment and its implications for risk management in urban water systems
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Infectious disease can be transmitted via various environmental pathways, many of which are incorporated into our water and wastewater systems. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) can be a valuable tool in identifying hazard exposure pathways and estimating their associated health impacts. QMRA can be applied to establish standards and guidelines and has been adopted by the World Health Organisation for the management of risks from water-related infectious diseases. This thesis aims at presenting a holistic approach for the assessment of microbial health risks in urban water and wastewater systems. The procedure of QMRA is presented, together with the data collected for the case studies, and the results are discussed in a risk management framework.

Decentralised drinking water treatment with membranes was shown to be competitive with centralised conventional treatment regarding environmental impacts and health. To attain sufficient die-off of pathogens in order to reduce risks to acceptable levels, facilities that permit the long-term storage of locally collected faeces are required. Issues of operation and mangement are likely to determine the health risks in decentralised systems. While failures in distribution are more likely to result in detectable waterborne disease outbreaks, the number of people at risk of becoming infected with pathogens passing normal treatment, calculated on a yearly basis, can be larger. Site-specific pathogen monitoring of source waters was identified as an important factor for the accurate estimation of risk. Noroviruses, an emerging waterborne pathogen, were shown to have fluctuating concentrations in surface water, with significant peaks during the wintertime. Time series analysis has potential as an early warning system if complemented by regular monitoring to discriminate peaks from random fluctuations. Groups already sensitive to infection, i.e. the elderly, the sick and children, were shown to consume higher volumes of cold tap water than the rest of the population, which may call for special atention in the risk management of drinking water systems. Microbial health risks associated with the handling and reuse of wastewater and sludge were shown to be successfully addressed within the management system Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP). Most exposure points identified could be controlled through easy measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2004. 84 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 304
Keyword
Quantitative microbial risk assessment, pathogens, urban, decentralised, failures, noroviruses, water consumption, HACCP, drinking water, wastewater, sludge, faeces, risk management
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-4880 (URN)91-85295-98-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-12-10, Elysion, Hus T, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Supervisors
Note
Copyright Agreement: Figure 6-1, page 49 and figure 6-2, page 50 in the summary/introduction are reprinted from Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 2(2) 11-18, with permission from the copyright holders, IWA. Note: the median values are missing in the article but the figures have been corrected in the summary/introduction.Available from: 2004-12-19 Created: 2004-12-19 Last updated: 2012-01-25Bibliographically approved

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Westrell, Therese

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