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Context driven policy design in urban water management: A case study of Windhoek, Namibia
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Environmental Engineering Services, Windhoek, Namibia.
2005 (English)In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 2, no 3, 151-160 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Urban water management in the southern cities of Namibia is composed through both a formal and an informal system. In the formal system, controlling demand is the key issue, and in the informal system, an improved accessibility to water is fundamental. The main issue raised in this paper is how authorities can support an ever-increasing poor population with water and at the same time keep demand among households with private water connections at a reasonable level. To decrease the demand for water in Windhoek, a thorough water demand management strategy (WDM) was launched in 1994. Water managers showed a high level of adaptability to the alarming water situation. One of the lessons learned from the implementation in Windhoek is that dedicated people with active involvement and vision are important for successful WDM. The budget must be allocated on a continuous basis for the implementation of certain WDM measures and a degree of flexibility among water users is important for the strategy to be successful. The dual situation experienced in cities in the South where both a need to expand services, and at the same time control demand, calls for a new approach in urban water management. Strategies need to be socially specific and flexible to changing pre-conditions. Therefore, a context driven policy design is advocated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2005. Vol. 2, no 3, 151-160 p.
Keyword [en]
Urban water management; Urban growth; Water demand management; Social adaptability; Context driven policy design
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13463DOI: 10.1080/15730620500236468OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13463DiVA: diva2:20803
Available from: 2005-06-19 Created: 2005-06-19 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Urban Water Security – Local Conditions and Regional Context: A case study of attitudes and water use behaviour in Windhoek, Namibia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban Water Security – Local Conditions and Regional Context: A case study of attitudes and water use behaviour in Windhoek, Namibia
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The world is becoming urbanised. Between 1995 and 2025, it is estimated that the cities and towns of the developing world will have absorbed another two billion people. A majority of these people will be poor and settle down in the unregulated areas. It is therefore fair to say that the management and use of water in urban areas is a very complex and dynamic issue. The fact that cities in the South are composed of two systems, the regulated and the unregulated areas, and that considerable diversity exists between them, highlights the need for a context driven policy design in urban water management. For attaining urban water security in these cities, controlling water demand in the regulated areas while improving access to water of good quality in the unregulated areas must be a priority. This thesis is based on a case study of Windhoek, a city characterized by conditions of aridity, rapid urbanisation and primate city dominance. Since 1994, a thorough water demand management (WDM) strategy has been implemented in Windhoek, aiming at improving water use efficiency and to reduce water consumption through economic and non-economical measures. It has been the purpose to examine the development of urban water management along with urban growth, the response to WDM by the domestic and private business sectors, as well as challenges and benefits of allowing urban branch-lines along water transfer schemes.

WDM can be an efficient tool in the struggle against luxury and non-efficient water use, to postpone bulk water investments and for cost-recovery. However, it is crucial that the incentives are based on and flexible according to socio-economic conditions, and that water managers acknowledge motives and attitudes that shape water use behaviour. One dilemma of WDM lies in the fact that if the supply capacity is increased, it is likely that demand will be adjusted accordingly. It is a tricky task to motivate water savings through demand management alongside with an improved water supply. Moreover, it is essential that savings are not only temporary, but also part of a long-term adjustment. Another predicament of WDM is that a high trust in water authorities actually lowered the efficiency of the strategy to meet the anticipated goal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2005. 103 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 321
Keyword
water supply, urban, water management, water demand management (WDM), vattenförsörjning, Namibia
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-4893 (URN)91-85297-84-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-06-03, Elysion, Hus T, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2005-06-19 Created: 2005-06-19 Last updated: 2014-09-04Bibliographically approved

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Sjömander-Magnusson, Therese

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