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Cognitive deafness: The deterioration of phonological representations in adults with an acquired severe hearing loss and its implications for speech understanding
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present thesis was to examine possible cognitive consequences of acquired hearing loss and the possible impact of these cognitive consequences on the ability to process spoken language presented through visual speechreading or through a cochlear implant.

The main findings of the present thesis can be summarised in the following conclusions: (a) The phonological processing capabilities of individuals who have acquired a severe hearing loss or deafness deteriorate progressively as a function of number of years with a complete or partial auditory deprivation. (b) The observed phonological deterioration is restricted to certain aspects of the phonological system. Specifically, the phonological representations of words in the mental lexicon are of less good quality, whereas the phonological system in verbal working memory is preserved. (c) The deterioration of the phonological representations has a negative effect on the individual's ability to process speech, either presented visually (i.e., speechreading) or through a cochlear implant, as it may impair word recognition processes which involve activation of and discrimination between the phonological representations in the lexicon. (d) Thus, the present research describes an acquired cognitive disability not previously documented in the literature, and contributes to the context of other populations with phonological disabilities by showing that a complete or partial deprivation of auditory speech stimulation in adulthood can give rise to a phonological disability. (e) From a clinical point of view, the results from the present thesis suggest that early cochlear implantation after the onset of an acquired severe hearing loss is an important objective in order to reach a high level of speech understanding with the implant.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2001. , 83 p.
Series
Studies from the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, ISSN 1650-1128 ; 3
Keyword [en]
Acquired hearing loss, phonological processsing, cochlear implants, speechreading
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-4983ISBN: 91-7373-029-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-4983DiVA: diva2:20869
Public defence
2001-06-15, Eklundska salen, Hus I, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2002-10-01 Created: 2002-10-01 Last updated: 2014-08-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Phonological Deterioration in Adults with an Acquired Severe Hearing Impairment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phonological Deterioration in Adults with an Acquired Severe Hearing Impairment
1998 (English)In: Scandinavian Audiology, ISSN 0107-8593, Vol. 27, no 49, 93-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study examined the phonological processing skills in a group of adults who have acquired a severe hearing loss in adult life. These severely hearing-impaired individuals performed at a significantly lower level on the rhyme judgement tasks and the letter span task, but on a par with the control group on other cognitive tests. A correlation analysis showed that duration of hearing loss is negatively related to performance on the rhyme judgement tasks and letter span task. The results indicate that the phonological processing skills in individuals who have acquired a severe hearing loss in adult life deteriorates. The results are discussed with respect to theoretical and clinical implications.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13496 (URN)
Available from: 2002-10-01 Created: 2002-10-01 Last updated: 2009-08-17
2. Deterioration of the phonological processing skills in adults with an acquired severe hearing loss
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deterioration of the phonological processing skills in adults with an acquired severe hearing loss
2002 (English)In: European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0954-1446, Vol. 14, no 3, 335-352 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Phonological processing was examined in a group of individuals with an acquired severe hearing loss and compared to a group of matched normal hearing individuals. The hearing-impaired group was significantly slower and less accurate when performing a visual rhyme-judgement task, and produced fewer rhyming word pairs on a rhyme-generation task than the normal hearing group. In contrast, the hearing-impaired group performed on a par with the normal hearing group on verbal working memory tasks. It is concluded that specific aspects of the phonological system deteriorate in this population as a function of auditory deprivation. In particular, the phonological representations are impaired and this impairment also affects the ability to rapidly perform phonological operations (i.e., analyse and compare). In contrast, phonological processing involved in verbal working memory is preserved in this population.

Keyword
Hearing loss, phonological processing, working memory, lexicon, phonological representation
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13497 (URN)10.1080/09541440143000096 (DOI)
Available from: 2002-10-01 Created: 2002-10-01 Last updated: 2009-04-24
3. Phonological representation and speech understanding with cochlear implants in deafened adults
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phonological representation and speech understanding with cochlear implants in deafened adults
Show others...
1998 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 39, no 3, 175-179 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study cognitive performance in 15 deafened adult cochlear implant candidates was examined and related to level of speech understanding after 12 months of experience with the implant. The implant group performed on par with normal hearing controls in all cognitive tasks used in the study with one exception: Performance was significantly lower in cognitive tasks where use of a phonological representation of sound is a key task-demand. Observations of the implanted individuals' level of speech understanding indicate that only those individuals who, pre-operatively, were in possession of phonological representations comparable to that of normal hearing could follow and understand a speaker that was out of sight. The results are discussed with respect to (a) deterioration in the phonological representation of sounds as a function of absence of external auditory stimulation, and (b) the role of cognitive factors in predicting success in speech understanding with the implant.

Keyword
Cochlear implants, phonological representation, cognition
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13498 (URN)10.1111/1467-9450.393075 (DOI)
Available from: 2002-10-01 Created: 2002-10-01 Last updated: 2009-08-19
4. Cognitive correlates of visual speech understanding in hearing impaired individuals
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive correlates of visual speech understanding in hearing impaired individuals
2001 (English)In: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, ISSN 1081-4159, Vol. 6, no 2, 103-116 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined the extent to which different measures ofspeechreading performance correlated with particular cognitiveabilities in a population of hearing-impaired people. Althoughthe three speechreading tasks (isolated word identification,sentence comprehension, and text tracking) were highly intercorrelated,they tapped different cognitive skills. In this population,younger participants were better speechreaders, and, when agewas taken into account, speech tracking correlated primarilywith (written) lexical decision speed. In contrast, speechreadingfor sentence comprehension correlated most strongly with performanceon a phonological processing task (written pseudohomophone detection)but also on a span measure that may have utilized visual, nonverbalmemory for letters. We discuss the implications of this pattern.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13499 (URN)10.1093/deafed/6.2.103 (DOI)
Available from: 2002-10-01 Created: 2002-10-01 Last updated: 2016-03-14

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