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Flavour interactions in aqueous solutions of an aldehyde, a ketone and a carboxylic acid
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Tetra Pak Packaging Solutions AB, Development & Engineering Material Innovation, Ruben Rausings gata, SE-221 86 Lund, Sweden.
2009 (English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Flavour impressions of aqueous solutions of nonanoic acid, octan-2-one and octanal were investigated. In a pre-study, the psychophysical functions of single component solutions were estimated and good agreements to Fechner’s law were obtained. The findings guided the choice of concentrations used in the main flavour interaction study. In this study, binary mixture interactions of nonanoic acid – octanal and octan-2-one – octanal were investigated in terms of perceived intensity and quality. Ten assessors judged the mixture solutions for flavour intensity by applying a free magnitude estimation procedure and describing their perceived quality impressions. The five assessors who were able to describe the perceived qualities in a consistent and logic way considered both mixtures being heterogeneous. Only three assessors scored intensities of the included single component solutions well in agreement with Fechner’s law. These three assessors’ intensity scorings of the mixtures did not deviate from those of a hypothetic additive model in a clear way. The intensity scorings of most of the other assessors were strongly dominated by one of the two components whereas some assessor did not score systematic at all.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
National Category
Natural Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17337OAI: diva2:208690
Available from: 2009-03-19 Created: 2009-03-19 Last updated: 2009-03-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Evaluation of volatile organic compounds related to board based packaging by use of instrumental and sensory analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of volatile organic compounds related to board based packaging by use of instrumental and sensory analysis
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main topic of the thesis is characterisation and evaluation of volatile organic compounds emitted by packaging materials based on paperboard products. The properties and concentration of these compounds are critical to how well these materials perform when applied as a main component of food packaging. Specifically there is an interest for finding out whether the materials are neutral enough from a flavour and odour perspective. This means that the odour and flavour of the packed foodstuff must not be influenced in a nonacceptable way by the packaging.

The studies may be seen as divided into two main parts complemented with an additional study. In the first part ”Electronic noses”, based on quite a number of gas sensors of different sensitivity profiles, conventional gas chromatography and to some extent also sensory analysis were applied for evaluating the volatile organic compounds emitted from paperboard products. The results obtained from the ”electronic nose” measurements were evaluated in the light of the detailed chemical information provided by the gas chromatography. First a large number of paperboard products were analysed followed by analysis of some thirty sequential jumbo reels of two different board products. The obtained results clarified what could be achieved when applying the gas sensor based analytical system to this type of materials. Furthermore the experiences gained by the experiments pointed out the importance of managing sample handling, headspace generation and gas flow distribution in a good way. These findings were useful for managing a third experimental series in which a commercial gas sensor based system was applied for differentiating aqueous thyme solutions regarding the thyme concentrations.

The multivariate data analysis methodology used for evaluating the gas sensor responses was successfully applied also to the obtained gas chromatography data. The chosen approach was to treat the chromatograms as having been generated by a large number of sensors. The sensory analysis was applied for investigating whether the found differences were relevant from a taint perspective which was invaluable since the ”electronic nose” system and our human chemical senses work according to different principles. It was therefore especially interesting to find out that the “electronic nose” and off-flavour differentiation between sequential jumbo reels of one product agreed well. Furthermore it was clearly not just a matter of different humidity of the materials.

In the second part the sensory analysis was the mainly applied evaluation technique. Gas chromatography was very valuable for supporting the experimental work and contributing to the understanding of the results whereas no gas sensor related evaluations were performed. In the first part a need for investigating a number of issues more carefully was pointed out. Topics such as sensory sensitivity, perception of mixtures in relation to the mixture components and calibration of sensory analysis were consequently investigated. For managing it was necessary to restrict the studies to simplified model systems that were arranged based on results and experiences obtained from studies of real packaging systems. The results pointed out the complexity of sensory related packaging issues and help in improving these type of sensory analysis e.g. by suggesting calibration procedures. The additional study is related to active packaging which means that the intention with the packaging is to influence the packed foodstuff in a way that is favourable and desired. In this study odorants were added to dispersion coatings that well could be used in the paperboard products. Headspace gas chromatography was successively applied for measuring the amounts and coating retention of the odorants upon drying. Furthermore multivariate data analysis was useful for overviewing the results and finding relations and structures that otherwise were hard to see.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingens kärna är karaktärisering och utvärdering av flyktiga ämnen vilka emitteras från kartongmaterial. Sammansättning och halter av dessa ämnen är kritiska för hur väl materialen fungerar som huvudkomponenter i förpackningar vilka används till varor såsom mat, drycker, sötsaker och cigaretter. I synnerhet är man intresserad av sådana ämnen som kan inverka på de förpackade varornas lukt och smak.

”Elektroniska näsor”, uppbyggda av ett antal gassensorer med olika känslighetsprofiler, konventionell gaskromatografi och sensorisk analys användes för att utvärdera de emitterade ämnena från kartongprodukter. Genom att relatera de resultat som genererades av de ”elektoniska näsorna” till den detaljerade kemiska information som gaskromatografin gav fick man klarhet i vad som har varit möjligt att uppnå med den undersökta gassensortekniken för denna typ av tillämpning. Dessutom framgick mycket tydligt att prov- och gasflödeshanteringen är kritiska delar av analyssystemet och mycket avgörande för en god funktion.

Den multivariata metodik som användes för att utvärdera sensorernas responser applicerades framgångsrikt även på gaskromatografiska data där kromatografin sågs som en alternativ sensorteknik. Man kunde bland annat visa att gasblandningens sammansättning bestående av de emitterade flyktiga ämnena hade tydliga samband med kartongtillverkningsprocessen och att man därigenom kunde följa processförändringar från produktionen.

Den sensoriska utvärderingen gjorde det möjligt att undersöka huruvida de instrumentella mätningarna var relevanta ur lukt- och smaksynvinkel. Detta var helt nödvändigt på grund av de stora skillnader i funktion hos lukt- och smaksinnena å ena sidan och de instrumentella teknikerna å andra sidan. Detta innebar även att en djupare förståelse för den sensoriska analysen blev nödvändig. Frågor såsom hur sensoriska responser genereras, vilken mätnoggrannhet och känslighet som kan uppnås samt hur olika sensoriska responser interagerar undersöktes. Dessa kunskaper och insikter gav infallsvinklar till hur sensorisk analys av dessa typer av material kan förbättras. Exempel på detta är en bättre jämförbarhet mellan sensoriska resultat och större förståelse för hur man genom att välja analysparametrar bättre kan få en känsligare och mer tillförlitlig analys.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009. 65 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1252
National Category
Natural Sciences
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17339 (URN)978-91-7393-655-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-04-17, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2009-03-19 Created: 2009-03-19 Last updated: 2009-03-20Bibliographically approved

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