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Evaluation of volatile organic compounds related to board based packaging by use of instrumental and sensory analysis
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main topic of the thesis is characterisation and evaluation of volatile organic compounds emitted by packaging materials based on paperboard products. The properties and concentration of these compounds are critical to how well these materials perform when applied as a main component of food packaging. Specifically there is an interest for finding out whether the materials are neutral enough from a flavour and odour perspective. This means that the odour and flavour of the packed foodstuff must not be influenced in a nonacceptable way by the packaging.

The studies may be seen as divided into two main parts complemented with an additional study. In the first part ”Electronic noses”, based on quite a number of gas sensors of different sensitivity profiles, conventional gas chromatography and to some extent also sensory analysis were applied for evaluating the volatile organic compounds emitted from paperboard products. The results obtained from the ”electronic nose” measurements were evaluated in the light of the detailed chemical information provided by the gas chromatography. First a large number of paperboard products were analysed followed by analysis of some thirty sequential jumbo reels of two different board products. The obtained results clarified what could be achieved when applying the gas sensor based analytical system to this type of materials. Furthermore the experiences gained by the experiments pointed out the importance of managing sample handling, headspace generation and gas flow distribution in a good way. These findings were useful for managing a third experimental series in which a commercial gas sensor based system was applied for differentiating aqueous thyme solutions regarding the thyme concentrations.

The multivariate data analysis methodology used for evaluating the gas sensor responses was successfully applied also to the obtained gas chromatography data. The chosen approach was to treat the chromatograms as having been generated by a large number of sensors. The sensory analysis was applied for investigating whether the found differences were relevant from a taint perspective which was invaluable since the ”electronic nose” system and our human chemical senses work according to different principles. It was therefore especially interesting to find out that the “electronic nose” and off-flavour differentiation between sequential jumbo reels of one product agreed well. Furthermore it was clearly not just a matter of different humidity of the materials.

In the second part the sensory analysis was the mainly applied evaluation technique. Gas chromatography was very valuable for supporting the experimental work and contributing to the understanding of the results whereas no gas sensor related evaluations were performed. In the first part a need for investigating a number of issues more carefully was pointed out. Topics such as sensory sensitivity, perception of mixtures in relation to the mixture components and calibration of sensory analysis were consequently investigated. For managing it was necessary to restrict the studies to simplified model systems that were arranged based on results and experiences obtained from studies of real packaging systems. The results pointed out the complexity of sensory related packaging issues and help in improving these type of sensory analysis e.g. by suggesting calibration procedures. The additional study is related to active packaging which means that the intention with the packaging is to influence the packed foodstuff in a way that is favourable and desired. In this study odorants were added to dispersion coatings that well could be used in the paperboard products. Headspace gas chromatography was successively applied for measuring the amounts and coating retention of the odorants upon drying. Furthermore multivariate data analysis was useful for overviewing the results and finding relations and structures that otherwise were hard to see.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingens kärna är karaktärisering och utvärdering av flyktiga ämnen vilka emitteras från kartongmaterial. Sammansättning och halter av dessa ämnen är kritiska för hur väl materialen fungerar som huvudkomponenter i förpackningar vilka används till varor såsom mat, drycker, sötsaker och cigaretter. I synnerhet är man intresserad av sådana ämnen som kan inverka på de förpackade varornas lukt och smak.

”Elektroniska näsor”, uppbyggda av ett antal gassensorer med olika känslighetsprofiler, konventionell gaskromatografi och sensorisk analys användes för att utvärdera de emitterade ämnena från kartongprodukter. Genom att relatera de resultat som genererades av de ”elektoniska näsorna” till den detaljerade kemiska information som gaskromatografin gav fick man klarhet i vad som har varit möjligt att uppnå med den undersökta gassensortekniken för denna typ av tillämpning. Dessutom framgick mycket tydligt att prov- och gasflödeshanteringen är kritiska delar av analyssystemet och mycket avgörande för en god funktion.

Den multivariata metodik som användes för att utvärdera sensorernas responser applicerades framgångsrikt även på gaskromatografiska data där kromatografin sågs som en alternativ sensorteknik. Man kunde bland annat visa att gasblandningens sammansättning bestående av de emitterade flyktiga ämnena hade tydliga samband med kartongtillverkningsprocessen och att man därigenom kunde följa processförändringar från produktionen.

Den sensoriska utvärderingen gjorde det möjligt att undersöka huruvida de instrumentella mätningarna var relevanta ur lukt- och smaksynvinkel. Detta var helt nödvändigt på grund av de stora skillnader i funktion hos lukt- och smaksinnena å ena sidan och de instrumentella teknikerna å andra sidan. Detta innebar även att en djupare förståelse för den sensoriska analysen blev nödvändig. Frågor såsom hur sensoriska responser genereras, vilken mätnoggrannhet och känslighet som kan uppnås samt hur olika sensoriska responser interagerar undersöktes. Dessa kunskaper och insikter gav infallsvinklar till hur sensorisk analys av dessa typer av material kan förbättras. Exempel på detta är en bättre jämförbarhet mellan sensoriska resultat och större förståelse för hur man genom att välja analysparametrar bättre kan få en känsligare och mer tillförlitlig analys.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2009. , 65 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1252
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17339ISBN: 978-91-7393-655-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-17339DiVA: diva2:208710
Public defence
2009-04-17, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-03-19 Created: 2009-03-19 Last updated: 2009-03-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Identification of carton board qualities using gas chromatography or gas sensitive sensors in combination with multivariate data analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of carton board qualities using gas chromatography or gas sensitive sensors in combination with multivariate data analysis
1997 (English)In: Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal, Vol. 12, no 4, 276-281 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Headspace gas chromatograms of 40 different food packaging board and paper qualities, containing in total 8167 detected peaks, were processed with principal component analysis. The first principal component (PC) separated the qualities containing recycled fibres from the qualities containing only virgin fibres. The second PC was strongly influenced by peaks representing volatile compounds from coating and the third PC was influemced by the type of pulp used as raw material.

The same 40 board and paper samples were also analysed with also called electronic nose which essentially consists of a selection of gas sensitive sensors and a software based on multivariate data analysis. The electronic nose showed to have a potential to distinguish between qualities from different mills although the experimental condition were not fully developed.

The capability of the two techniques to recognise "fingerprints" of compounds emitted from board and paper suggests that the techniques can be developedfurther to partly replace human sensory panels in the quality control of paper and board intended for food packaging materials.

Keyword
Electronic nose, Headspace gas chromatography, Multivariate data analysis, Packaging board, Sensors
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17331 (URN)10.3183/NPPRJ-1997-12-04-p276-281 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-03-19 Created: 2009-03-19 Last updated: 2009-03-19Bibliographically approved
2. Taint and odour related quality monitoring of two food packaging board products using gas chromatography, gas sensors and sensory analysis 
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Taint and odour related quality monitoring of two food packaging board products using gas chromatography, gas sensors and sensory analysis 
1999 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, Vol. 14, no 1, 5-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Both the instrumental techniques were useful for measuring taint and odour related quality variations within one of the products, which emitted relatively high amounts of volatile organic compounds. Multivariate data analysis showed to be powerful for visualising patterns in the headspace concentrations of compounds emitted from the products.

Keyword
Electronic nose, Gas sensors, Headspace gas chromatography, Multivariate data analysis, Packaging board, Sensory analysis
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17332 (URN)10.3183/NPPRJ-1999-14-01-p005-016 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-03-19 Created: 2009-03-19 Last updated: 2009-03-19Bibliographically approved
3. Analysis of volatile compounds of aqueous thyme solutions by headspace gas chromatography, gas sensor arrays ("electronic nose") and a sensory odour panel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of volatile compounds of aqueous thyme solutions by headspace gas chromatography, gas sensor arrays ("electronic nose") and a sensory odour panel
2010 (English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The ability of a commercial emission analysis system to evaluate a sensory related attribute was investigated. Since food applications are very complex, a simplified model system consisting of aqueous thyme solutions was evaluated. Sensory odour assessments were made as well as instrumental analysis applying the emission analyser, based on gas sensor arrays, (a so called electronic nose) and headspace gas chromatography. The operation of the emission analyser was found critical and could be optimised thanks to the detailed chemical information obtained by the chromatography. This information also guided a proper evaluation of the emission analyser raw data and predictions of the relative thyme concentrations of the solutions. In that way the emission analyser separated the thyme solutions even better than the assessors applying sensory odour analysis. Since the results seem encouraging the strategy developed and knowledge gained may well be used for investigating more complex systems closer to real applications.

Keyword
Thyme, water, volatiles, sensory analysis, electronic nose, gas chromatography
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17333 (URN)
Available from: 2009-03-19 Created: 2009-03-19 Last updated: 2010-04-19Bibliographically approved
4. Multivariate analysis of retention and distribution of aroma compounds in barrier dispersion coatings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multivariate analysis of retention and distribution of aroma compounds in barrier dispersion coatings
2007 (English)In: Packaging Technology and Science, ISSN 0894-3214, Vol. 20, no 5, 345-358 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of drying conditions, latex type, talc content and amount of added aroma compounds on the retention and distribution of aroma compounds in barrier dispersion coatings was explored using static headspace gas chromatography combined with multivariate data analysis. The model aroma system consisted of an alcohol, an ester, an aldehyde, a ketone and two terpenes. Four latex grades based on styrene-acrylate and styrene-butadiene were studied. It was found that non-polar aroma compounds were retained best in styrene-butadiene latex, while polar ones were retained more in the styrene-acrylate latex. Talc increased the retention of all the aroma compounds. The retention of polar compounds was higher with shorter drying times, which is probably due to greater losses during the later steps of the film formation process when internal water was evaporated. Polarity and talc also affected the partition of the aroma compounds between air and film.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley InterScience, 2007
Keyword
Aroma compounds, retention, latex, dispersion coating, active packaging
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17335 (URN)
Available from: 2009-03-19 Created: 2009-03-19 Last updated: 2010-05-18Bibliographically approved
5. The effects of selected aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids on off-flavours in water
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of selected aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids on off-flavours in water
2005 (English)In: International journal of food science & technology, ISSN 0950-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2621, Vol. 40, no 9, 993-1004 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of selected aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids on the development of off-flavours in water were studied. Combinations of hexanal, octanal, 2-octanone, 5-nonanone, hexanoic acid and nonanoic acid were rated by the off-flavour intensities they created in water at concentrations just at or below the threshold value of each analyte. Two different sensory panels evaluated the off-flavours induced by different combinations of the analytes. The observations of the two panels agreed well. From these studies, it could be concluded that aldehydes play an important role in the development of off-flavours intensities in water. There were synergistic effects between aldehydes and ketones, as well as between aldehydes and carboxylic acids. Small amounts of aldehydes and carboxylic acids – well below their respective threshold values – caused an increase in the off-flavour intensity. No synergism between ketones and carboxylic acids could be observed

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley InterScience, 2005
Keyword
Aldehyde, carboxylic acids, degradation products, ketone, polyethylene, sensory evaluation, threshold value
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17336 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.01033.x (DOI)
Available from: 2009-03-19 Created: 2009-03-19 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
6. Flavour interactions in aqueous solutions of an aldehyde, a ketone and a carboxylic acid
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flavour interactions in aqueous solutions of an aldehyde, a ketone and a carboxylic acid
2009 (English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Flavour impressions of aqueous solutions of nonanoic acid, octan-2-one and octanal were investigated. In a pre-study, the psychophysical functions of single component solutions were estimated and good agreements to Fechner’s law were obtained. The findings guided the choice of concentrations used in the main flavour interaction study. In this study, binary mixture interactions of nonanoic acid – octanal and octan-2-one – octanal were investigated in terms of perceived intensity and quality. Ten assessors judged the mixture solutions for flavour intensity by applying a free magnitude estimation procedure and describing their perceived quality impressions. The five assessors who were able to describe the perceived qualities in a consistent and logic way considered both mixtures being heterogeneous. Only three assessors scored intensities of the included single component solutions well in agreement with Fechner’s law. These three assessors’ intensity scorings of the mixtures did not deviate from those of a hypothetic additive model in a clear way. The intensity scorings of most of the other assessors were strongly dominated by one of the two components whereas some assessor did not score systematic at all.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17337 (URN)
Available from: 2009-03-19 Created: 2009-03-19 Last updated: 2009-03-19Bibliographically approved
7. Towards Improved Comparability of Off-flavour Measurements of Packaging Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Improved Comparability of Off-flavour Measurements of Packaging Materials
2009 (English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Since one task of packaging in direct contact with food is to preserve flavour, it is important to determine to what extent packaging materials can evoke off-flavours in packed foodstuffs. The generated results may be expressed in terms of intensity, using quantitative measures, and quality, using qualitative descriptors. A maximum off-flavour impact is not seldom specified for paperboard packaging materials. Such specifications would make little sense unless they were comparable to those of other products. For this reason, it is important to develop calibration procedures and to identify critical points for the applied analytical methods. A procedure based on matching the off-flavour intensities of real packaging materials with those of simplified calibration samples has been developed. Defining the concentrations of calibration samples that correspond to actual intensity numbers makes more uniform and comparable quantification possible. The present study examines the difference between real paperboard products and such calibration samples. It also demonstrates that sensory detection ability depends on food simulant characteristics by determining the flavour-detection thresholds of one odorant present in either of two food simulants. The sorption capacities and retention abilities of the food simulants for this odorant were investigated using headspace gas chromatography. The threshold determination identified calibration sample concentrations corresponding to just noticeable off-flavours and verified that a sufficiently large number of trained assessors is needed to conduct such sensory analysis. The sensitivity of different food simulants to off-flavour contamination was also examined.

Keyword
Off-flavour, sensory analysis, calibration, detection threshold, food simulants
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17338 (URN)
Available from: 2009-03-19 Created: 2009-03-19 Last updated: 2009-03-19Bibliographically approved

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