Seventeen patients with endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) diagnosed between 1970 and 1996 were evaluated according to DNA ploidy, S-phase fraction (SPF), p53, and mdm-2 expression, as well as traditional clinical and pathologic prognostic factors, such as tumor stage, grade, and mitotic index. DNA flow cytometric analysis and immunohistochemical staining for p53 and mdm-2 were performed on paraffin-embedded archival tissue from the uterine tumors. Flow cytometric DNA histograms were obtained from 16 patients.
The patients ranged in age from 41 to 78 years (median, 57 years). Seven (41%) patients were premenopausal. Thirteen low-grade ESS were DNA diploid and had a low SPF. Of these, two overexpressed p53, while only one was mdm-2 positive. Among the four high-grade ESS we found one (25%) DNA diploid tumor and three (75%) DNA aneuploid tumors. Two (50%) had an SPF greater than 10%, three (75%) were p53-positive, and two (50%) overexpressed mdm-2. During the observation period, nine (53%) patients (five with low-grade and four with high-grade tumors) died of disease. The 5-year survival rate for patients with low-grade ESS was 74%, while all four patients with high-grade ESS died of disease within 14 months of diagnosis. Using the log-rank test, we found a significant correlation between survival and tumor grade (P = 0.007), DNA ploidy (P = 0.026), SPF (P = 0.048), and FIGO surgical stage (P = 0.026).
In conclusion, we found that tumor grade was a strong predictor of clinical outcome in ESS. In addition, a worse prognosis was found for those ESS patients with advanced disease, DNA aneuploidy, and a high SPF. There was no difference between the recurrent and nonrecurrent group of early stage (surgical stage I), low-grade ESS with regard to clinicopathological features, DNA ploidy, SPF, p53, and mdm-2 expression. All patients with high-grade ESS died of disease within 14 months of diagnosis. In contrast, only three of the 11 patients with early stage, low-grade ESS died of disease.
1999. Vol. 9, no 2, 98-104 p.