Growth of Pt/Mg Multilayer X-ray Mirrors: Effects of Sputter Yield Amplification
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Nil : Nil (English)
This thesis report is focused on the growth of Pt/Mg multilayers and the studies of the sputter yield amplification effect in these. The main application is to use the multilayers as X-ray mirrors reflecting an X-ray wavelength of 17 Å. This wavelength is important for astronomical applications in general, and solar imaging applications in particular.
For periodic X-ray multilayer mirrors only a certain specific wavelength of X-rays can be reflected. What wavelength that is reflected depends on the individual layer thicknesses of the materials that are constituting the multilayer. These thicknesses can be determined using modified Bragg’s law and are approximately a quarter of the wavelength.
In order to obtain the exact desired layer thickness of each individual layer it is necessary to understand the growth processes and the effects that are going on during deposition of such multilayer mirrors. It has been shown that when depositing multilayers consisting of one very light and one very heavy material, like e.g. Pt and Mg, the deposition rate of the light element is non-linear with deposition time for thin layers. This is because of backscattered energetic neutrals from the heavy target material, which affects the growing film. Furthermore, a sputter yield amplification is present for thin layers when a light element is grown on top of a heavy element, i.e. for Mg on top of Pt.
Dual DC magnetron sputtering has been used to grow the Pt/Mg multilayers, and the influence of the backscattered energetic neutrals and the sputter yield amplification effect has been studied for Ar and Kr sputtering gases at pressures ranging from 3 up to 9 mTorr. The individual layer thicknesses have been obtained from simulations of hard X-ray reflectivity measurements using the IMD program. The number of backscattered energetic neutrals and their energies at the target have been calculated using the TRIM code.
Using the results obtained it is now possible to predict and compensate for the non-linear deposition rate of Mg.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. , 88 p.
Multilayer, X-ray mirror, Pt/Mg, DC magnetron sputtering, sputter yield amplification, backscattered neutrals, X-ray reflectivity, XRD, TRIM, IMD.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17392ISRN: LITH-IFM-A-EX--09/2051--SEOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-17392DiVA: diva2:208962
2009-02-05, Pascal (P321), Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, (IFM), Linköping University, 581 83, Linköping Sweden, Linköping University, Campus Valla, 13:15 (English)
Eriksson, Fredrik, Dr.
Birch, Jens, Prof.