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Product and Process Design for Successful Remanufacturing
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2552-3636
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Remanufacturing is an industrial process where used products are restored to useful life. This dissertation describes how products can be designed to facilitate the remanufacturing process. It also describes how the remanufacturing processes can be improved to be more efficient.

When comparing remanufacturing with other end-of-life scenarios, it is hard from an environmental perspective to determine which scenario is preferable. This research has shown that remanufacturing is preferable to new manufacturing from a natural resource perspective. With remanufacturing the efforts that initially was used to shape the product part is salvaged. Furthermore, it has been found that it is environmentally and economically beneficial to have products designed for remanufacturing. To avoid obsolescence, the products must be easy to upgrade with new technology in the remanufacturing process.

In this dissertation, a generic remanufacturing process is described with all included steps that are needed to restore the products to useful life. In order to make the remanufacturing process more efficient, the products need to be adapted for the process. Therefore, the preferable products properties facilitating each step in the generic remanufacturing process have been identified. A matrix (RemPro) was created to illustrate the relation between each and every generic remanufacturing step and the preferable product properties.

Remanufacturing case studies have shown that the companies performing remanufacturing often have problems with material flows, use of space and high inventory levels. This is often due to the uncertainties in the quality and the number of cores (used products) that will arrive at the remanufacturing plants. To overcome these problems, the remanufacturers need to achieve a better control over the product’s design and use phase, i.e. the life cycle phases that precede the remanufacturing process. This control is best performed by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs).

Furthermore, it has been found that Swedish manufacturers often have a weak relation between its environmental management systems and product issues, such as design for environment/remanufacturing. Design for environmental/remanufacturing aspects should be a crucial part of the manufacturers environmental management systems (EMSs) as the products stand for much of the material flows at the manufacturing companies. If the external auditors address the manufacturers to have a life cycle perspective on their business the manufacturer would be more likely to adapt the remanufacturing aspects in their environmental management systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2004. , 96 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 906
Keyword [en]
Remanufacturing, generic remanufacturing, material flows, environmental
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-5015ISBN: 91-85295-73-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-5015DiVA: diva2:20932
Public defence
2004-11-06, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2016-04-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Analysis of service selling and design for remanufacturing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of service selling and design for remanufacturing
2000 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, 2000. ISEE 2000., IEEE , 2000, 272-277 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A focus on selling services or functions instead of physical products can, through remanufacturing, be a way of closing material flows in present society. When a company decides to sell services, a closer connection with the customer can be established and a better control over the products can be achieved. This analysis shows that it is preferable that products aimed for service selling are designed for remanufacturing, since this facilitates the remanufacturing. With remanufacturing, economical and environmental benefits can be gained. Historical cases indicate this, and are described in this article along with an ongoing pilot project of service selling

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2000
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13535 (URN)10.1109/ISEE.2000.857661 (DOI)000089141600045 ()0-7803-5962-3 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment (IEEE-00), San Francisco, CA, USA, 8–10 May 2000
Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2016-04-12
2. Product Properties Essential for Remanufacturing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Product Properties Essential for Remanufacturing
2001 (English)In: Proceedings of 8th International Seminar on Life Cycle Engineering (LCE-01), Sponsored by International Institution for Production Engineering Research (CIRP), Varna, Bulgaria, 18–20 June, 2001, 171-179 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Series
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13536 (URN)
Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2016-04-12
3. Enhanced Product Design Facilitating Remanufacturing of two Household Appliances: A case study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced Product Design Facilitating Remanufacturing of two Household Appliances: A case study
2001 (English)In: Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED-01), Vol. “Design Methods for Performance and Sustainability”, Glasgow, Scotland, The United Kingdom, 21–23 August, 2001, 645-652 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13537 (URN)
Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2016-04-12
4. An Economical and Technical Analysis of a Household Appliance Remanufacturing Process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Economical and Technical Analysis of a Household Appliance Remanufacturing Process
2001 (English)In: Proceedings of EcoDesign-01, Tokyo, Japan, 12–15 December, IEEE , 2001, 536-541 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Analyses technical and economical aspects of a specific remanufacturing process at Electrolux AB in Motala, Sweden. The organisation is examined and all remanufacturing steps are analysed in order to find out where to put the most effort to make the remanufacturing process more efficient. The technical analysis showed that the bottleneck in the remanufacturing process was the cleaning step. Suggestions on how to make the cleaning more efficient are described in the article. Economical calculation show which activities hold the largest cost shares. The method for doing these calculations was activity based costing (ABC). This method was chosen since it seemed more preferable in comparison to traditional methods. It was found that two remanufacturing activities stand for the most costs, which were the storing of products and administration of the entire process

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2001
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13538 (URN)10.1109/.2001.992417 (DOI)0-7695-1266-6 (ISBN)
Conference
EcoDesign 2001: Second International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, 11-15 December 2001, Tokyo, Japan
Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2016-04-12
5. Refurbish or Recycle Household Appliances? An Ecological and Economic study of Electrolux in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Refurbish or Recycle Household Appliances? An Ecological and Economic study of Electrolux in Sweden
2003 (English)In: Proceedings of EcoDesign–03, Japan, Tokyo, 2003, 348–355- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Series
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13539 (URN)
Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2016-04-12
6. Making functional sales environmentally and economically beneficial through product remanufacturing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making functional sales environmentally and economically beneficial through product remanufacturing
2005 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 9, 913-925 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Functional sales have both economic and environmental benefits—especially when the functional sales contracts are used in connection with product remanufacturing. This paper elucidates these benefits and provides an argument for why products to be used for functional sales should be remanufactured. To achieve an efficient remanufacturing process, the products aimed for remanufacturing should be adapted for the process as much as possible. The analyses of remanufacturing facilities for household appliances and automotive parts revealed that the cleaning and repairing steps are most critical in the remanufacturing process. To facilitate these two steps, the product designers should focus on giving the products the following properties: ease of access, ease of handling, ease of separation and wear resistance.

Keyword
Functional sales; Service selling; Remanufacturing; Design for environment; Ecodesign; Design for remanufacturing and activity based costing (ABC)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13540 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.04.006 (DOI)000228201100005 ()
Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
7. Products in environmental management systems: drivers, barriers and experiences
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Products in environmental management systems: drivers, barriers and experiences
2005 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 4, 405-415 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Do standardised environmental management systems (EMS) lead to improved environmental performance? This depends on to what extent these systems lead to changes in important flows of material and energy, which for manufacturing companies, in turn, mean that the product development process is important. Consequently, it appears vital to investigate the connection between EMS and ‘Design for the Environment’ (DFE), i.e. the connection between these management systems and concepts that deal with environmental issues in product development.

This paper presents product-oriented environmental management systems (POEMS), including characteristics of existing models, experiences from projects where these models have been tested and experiences concerning the product connection in ‘normal’ EMS. It includes a discussion of important factors influencing to what extent DFE activities are integrated into EMS and/or the outcome of such integration.

There are many motives for integrating the two concepts. Firstly, DFE thinking might enrich EMS by contributing with a life-cycle perspective. If EMS encompassed products' life cycles to a greater extent, they would be a better complement to the often facility-oriented legal requirements and authority control. Secondly, EMS might remove the pilot project character of DFE activities and lead to continuous improvement. Thirdly, integration could lead to successful co-operation, both internally and externally. However, existing studies show that there is a mixed picture concerning the extent ‘normal’ EMS currently encompass products.

Keyword
Product oriented environmental management systems; POEMS; Design for the Environment; DFE; Eco-design; ISO 14001; EMAS
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13541 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2003.12.005 (DOI)
Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
8. Products in environmental management systems: the role of auditors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Products in environmental management systems: the role of auditors
2005 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 4, 417-431 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For standardized environmental management systems (EMS) to be environmentally effective tools, they should affect important environmental aspects related to flows of materials and energy, which for manufacturing companies are closely connected to their products. This paper presents how external environmental auditors interpret and apply important product-related requirements of ISO 14001 at manufacturing companies in Sweden.

The results indicate that the link between EMS and products is rather weak. Products are seldom regarded as significant environmental aspects and are therefore not within the main scope of many EMS, which are mainly focused on sites. However, all of the interviewed auditors require that some kind of environmental considerations be incorporated into product development, but these considerations are to large extent site oriented; how they are prioritized in relation to other factors such as economics and other customer priorities appears to be up to the companies.

The paper includes some recommendations to strengthen the role of products within the framework of standardized EMS.

Keyword
Design for environment; DFE; Environmental management systems; EMS; ISO 14001; EMAS; Auditors
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13542 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2003.12.006 (DOI)
Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13

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