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“The technology is great when it works”: Maritime Technology and Human Integration on the Ship’s Bridge
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Several recent maritime accidents suggest that modern technology sometimes can make it difficult for mariners to navigate safely. A review of the literature also indicates that the technological remedies designed to prevent maritime accidents at times can be ineffective or counterproductive. To understand why, problem-oriented ethnography was used to collect and analyse data on how mariners understand their work and their tools. Over 4 years, 15 ships were visited; the ship types studied were small and large archipelago passenger ships and cargo ships. Mariners and others who work in the maritime industry were interviewed. What I found onboard were numerous examples of what I now call integration work. Integration is about co-ordination, co-operation and compromise. When humans and technology have to work together, the human (mostly) has to co-ordinate resources, co-operate with devices and compromise between means and ends. What mariners have to integrate to get work done include representations of data and information; rules, regulations and practice; human and machine work; and learning and practice.

Mariners largely have to perform integration work themselves because machines cannot communicate in ways mariners see as useful. What developers and manufacturers choose to integrate into screens or systems is not always what the mariners would choose. There are other kinds of ‘mistakes’ mariners have to adapt to. Basically, they arise from conflicts between global rationality (rules, regulations and legislation) and local rationality (what gets defined as good seamanship at a particular time and place). When technology is used to replace human work this is not necessarily a straightforward or successful process. What it often means is that mariners have to work, sometimes very hard, to ‘construct’ a cooperational human-machine system. Even when technology works ‘as intended’ work of this kind is still required.

Even in most ostensibly integrated systems, human operators still must perform integration work. In short, technology alone cannot solve the problems that technology created. Further, trying to fix ‘human error’ by incremental ‘improvements’ in technology or procedure tends to be largely ineffective due to the adaptive compensation by users. A systems view is necessary to make changes to a workplace. Finally, this research illustrates the value problem-oriented ethnography can have when it comes to collecting information on what users ‘mean’ and ‘really do’ and what designers ‘need’ to make technology easier and safer to use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2004. , 108 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 907
Keyword [en]
integration, man-machine-interaction, human-machine
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-5017ISBN: 91-85295-78-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-5017DiVA: diva2:20945
Public defence
2004-12-14, BL 32 - Nobel, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-12-20 Created: 2004-12-20 Last updated: 2012-01-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Integration work on the ship’s bridge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration work on the ship’s bridge
2008 (English)In: Journal of Maritime research, ISSN 1697-9133, Vol. 5, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13548 (URN)
Available from: 2004-12-20 Created: 2004-12-20
2. Piloting by heart and by chart
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Piloting by heart and by chart
2006 (English)In: Journal of navigation (Print), ISSN 0373-4633, E-ISSN 1469-7785, Vol. 59, no 2, 221-237 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes the complexity of the Baltic archipelago, and the navigational and operational processes involved in piloting these waters. This four year ethnographic study shows how piloting is learned, performed, and passed on to the next generation of pilots. The blend of new technology and old methods is discussed, the indivisibility of working and learning, and the individuality of the mental constructs of the mariners/pilots.

Keyword
Archipelago navigation; Marine pilots; Spatial mental models; Lifelong learning
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13549 (URN)10.1017/S0373463306003663 (DOI)
Available from: 2004-12-20 Created: 2004-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13
3. How Navigation Systems are Used. Data from Field Studies and Implications for Design.: The Nautical Institute
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How Navigation Systems are Used. Data from Field Studies and Implications for Design.: The Nautical Institute
2003 (English)In: Integrated Bridge Systems and the Human Element, 16-17 September 2003, London, 2003Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13550 (URN)
Available from: 2004-12-20 Created: 2004-12-20
4. Studying the Effects of Technological Change: Bridge Automation and Human Factors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studying the Effects of Technological Change: Bridge Automation and Human Factors
2002 (English)In: Ortung und Navigation, 2002, Vol. 2Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13551 (URN)
Available from: 2004-12-20 Created: 2004-12-20 Last updated: 2009-02-25
5. On Your Watch: Automation on the Bridge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Your Watch: Automation on the Bridge
2002 (English)In: Journal of navigation (Print), ISSN 0373-4633, E-ISSN 1469-7785, Vol. 55, no 1, 83-96 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we discuss the grounding of the Royal Majesty, reconstructed from the perspective of the crew. The aim is particularly to understand the role of automation in shaping crew assessments and actions. Automation is often introduced because of quantitative promises that: it will reduce human error; reduce workload; and increase efficiency. But as demonstrated by the Royal Majesty, as well as by numerous research results, automation has qualitative consequences for human work and safety, and does not simply replace human work with machine work. Automation changes the task it was meant to support; it creates new error pathways, shifts consequences of error further into the future and delays opportunities for error detection and recovery. By going through the sequence of events that preceded the grounding of the Royal Majesty, we highlight the role that automation plays in the success and failure of navigation today. We then point to future directions on how to make automated systems into better team players.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2002
Keyword
Automation; Human Factors; Maritime; Integration
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13552 (URN)10.1017/S0373463301001588 (DOI)000173841800006 ()
Available from: 2004-12-20 Created: 2004-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
6. The human factor in accident analysis: the Kronprins Harald case
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The human factor in accident analysis: the Kronprins Harald case
2002 (English)In: Nordic Navigation, 2002, Vol. 1, no 2Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13553 (URN)
Available from: 2004-12-20 Created: 2004-12-20 Last updated: 2009-02-25

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Lützhöft, Margareta

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