liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Severe hypoglycemia in children with IDDM: A prospective population study, 1992-1994
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
1997 (English)In: Diabetes Care, ISSN 0149-5992, Vol. 20, no 4, 497-503 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: Is an increased incidence of severe hypoglycemia an unavoidable effect of improved metabolic control? And, if so, to what extent? RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 1992-1994, severe hypoglycemia was prospectively registered in our intensively treated IDDM population, 146 children 1-18 years of age with > 90% of the patients on > or = 4 insulin injections per day. The two categories, "severe hypoglycemia with unconsciousness" (U hypoglycemia) and "severe hypoglycemia without unconsciousness but needing the assistance of another person" (NU hypoglycemia), were analyzed in relation to yearly mean HbAlc levels, insulin doses and proportion of short-acting insulin, age at onset, duration of diabetes, age, sex, and weight-to-height ratio. RESULTS: Yearly mean HbAlc levels improved from 8.1 +/- 1.6% in 1992 to 6.9 +/- 1.3% in 1994. The yearly incidence of U hypoglycemia was 0.15-0.19 events per patient-year, seen in 10-16% of patients, showing no significant increase from 1992-1994. For NU hypoglycemia, slightly increasing figures from 1.01 to 1.26 events per patient-year, seen in 27-38% of patients yearly, were reported. There was no significant correlation between severe (U or NU) hypoglycemia and HbAlc, but still an association was seen in certain calculations. In multiple regression analysis, U hypoglycemia was not related to any factor, but the square root of the rate of NU hypoglycemia was related to lower HbAlc levels (P = 0.0003), higher insulin doses (IU.kg-1.24 h-1) (P = 0.0024), and a lower proportion of short-acting insulin out of the total daily insulin dose (P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Multiple-dose insulin therapy with rather low yearly mean HbAlc values causes a slight increase of NU hypoglycemia but no increase of U hypoglycemia in our population of children with IDDM. Near physiological HbAlc levels may be achieved without any pronounced risk of increasing the incidence of severe hypoglycemia when multiple-injection insulin therapy is combined with adequate self-control based on psychosocial support and active education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1997. Vol. 20, no 4, 497-503 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13555OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13555DiVA: diva2:20947
Available from: 2000-11-29 Created: 2000-11-29 Last updated: 2009-08-20
In thesis
1. On Severe Hypoglycaemia in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Severe Hypoglycaemia in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes
2000 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: For people with type 1 diabetes, there is no alternative to treatment with insulin. The major side effect of insulin is severe hypoglycaemia (SH), when the patient needs help or even becomes unconscious.

Material: We have studied a geographic population of yearly 130-140 unselected type 1 diabetes patients aged 1-18 years during 1992-1999. They were intensively treated with 87-96% on 4-7 daily insulin doses, combined with active self-control, psychosocial support and problem-based education from onset. Average HbA1c was 6.5 with Mono-S standard (1.15% beow DCCT level).

Methods: We evaluated use of a prospective patient questionnaire for continuous long-term registration of treatment and outcome data and analysed HbA1c, SH and other variables. Over years, 95-100% response rate was achieved. We used also temporary questionnaries.

Results: We found SH with unconsciousness reported from on average 11% of patients yearly, SH without unconsciousness but needing assistance from on average 36% yearly and weak associations to HbA1c, such as reletive risk of SH 1.24 for yearly mean HbA1c <7.0% compared to ≥7.0% There was a seasonal variation in HbA1c (p=0.023) and incidence of SH. The strongest predictor for SH was SH during the previous year (r=9.38, p<0.0001).

The impact from SH showed great variation, and 20-30% of events led to practical disturbancies for parents and/or other people. Hospital visits took place only at 5% and hospitalisations at 3% of events. Social activities for patients were cancelled after 10% of events. Increased worry for patients was reported after 8% of events, bad sleep after 7%. We estimated the average socio-economic cost for SH at EURO 239 per event of SH with unconsciousness, and EURO 63 per event of SH without unconsciousness but needing assistance.

Mass-distributed self-study material (brochures and videos) aimed at the prevention of SH without compromising metabolic control reached high dissemination and was widely appreciated by patients. The material copy cost was only EURO 7 per patient. It also seems to have contributed to a decrease in SH with unconsciousness from yearly 13% of patients before to 9% after intervention (3-years average), but controlled studies are needed.

Conclusions: We conclude that SH remains a very serious problem of multifactorial aethiology. It causes considerable discomfort and costs. Systematic patient education mgiht reduce the incidence. Interventions using mass-distribution of high quality self-study material such as videos and brochures seem to have a potential to be cost-effective. There is a great patient/consumer interest in high quality- and advanced information/education materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2000. 67 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 648
Keyword
Severe hypoglycaemia, SH, diabetes, insulin, HbA1c, aethiology
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-5018 (URN)91-7219-749-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
(English)
Available from: 2000-11-29 Created: 2000-11-29 Last updated: 2012-01-24Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Link to articleLink to Ph.D. Thesis

Authority records BETA

Nordfeldt, SamLudvigsson, Johnny

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Nordfeldt, SamLudvigsson, Johnny
By organisation
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Faculty of Health SciencesDepartment of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryPediatrics Department of Paediatrics in Linköping
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 224 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf