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An algorithm for combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events in driving simulator experiments
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), VTI, SE-581 95 LinkÄoping, Sweden)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0336-6943
INRETS, Institut National de REcherche sur les Transports et leur Sécurité, 58, Bd Lefebvre F-75732 Paris, France.
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), VTI, SE-581 95 Linköping, Sweden.
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), VTI, SE-581 95 Linköping, Sweden .
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2011 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 19, no 6, 1185-1201 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Autonomous vehicles can be used to create realistic simulations of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators. However, the use of autonomous vehicles makes it difficult to ensure reproducibility between subjects. In this paper, an effort is made to solve the problem by combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events, denoted plays. The aim is to achieve the same initial play conditions for each subject, since the traffic situation around the subject will be dependant upon each subject's actions while driving in the autonomous traffic. This paper presents an algorithm that achieves the transition from autonomous traffic to a predefined start condition for a play. The algorithm has been tested in the VTI driving simulator III with promising results. In most of the cases the algorithm could reconstruct the specified start condition and conduct the transition from autonomous to controlled mode in a non-conspicuous way. Some problems were observed regarding moving unwanted vehicles away from the closest area around the simulator vehicle, and this part of the algorithm has to be enhanced. The experiment also showed that the controlled every-day life traffic normally used in the VTI driving simulator makes subjects drive faster than in autonomous traffic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier , 2011. Vol. 19, no 6, 1185-1201 p.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17451DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2011.02.003ISI: 000295663100018OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-17451DiVA: diva2:209515
Note
Funding agencies|Swedish Road Administration, Transport Telematics Sweden||INRETS||Available from: 2009-03-25 Created: 2009-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-13
In thesis
1. Simulation of Surrounding Vehicles in Driving Simulators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation of Surrounding Vehicles in Driving Simulators
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Driving simulators and microscopic traffic simulation are important tools for making evaluations of driving and traffic. A driving simulator is de-signed to imitate real driving and is used to conduct experiments on driver behavior. Traffic simulation is commonly used to evaluate the quality of service of different infrastructure designs. This thesis considers a different application of traffic simulation, namely the simulation of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators.

The surrounding traffic is one of several factors that influence a driver's mental load and ability to drive a vehicle. The representation of the surrounding vehicles in a driving simulator plays an important role in the striving to create an illusion of real driving. If the illusion of real driving is not good enough, there is an risk that drivers will behave differently than in real world driving, implying that the results and conclusions reached from simulations may not be transferable to real driving.

This thesis has two main objectives. The first objective is to develop a model for generating and simulating autonomous surrounding vehicles in a driving simulator. The approach used by the model developed is to only simulate the closest area of the driving simulator vehicle. This area is divided into one inner region and two outer regions. Vehicles in the inner region are simulated according to a microscopic model which includes sub-models for driving behavior, while vehicles in the outer regions are updated according to a less time-consuming mesoscopic model.

The second objective is to develop an algorithm for combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events. Driving simulators are often used to study situations that rarely occur in the real traffic system. In order to create the same situations for each subject, the behavior of the surrounding vehicles has traditionally been strictly controlled. This often leads to less realistic surrounding traffic. The algorithm developed makes it possible to use autonomous traffic between the predefined controlled situations, and thereby get both realistic traffc and controlled events. The model and the algorithm developed have been implemented and tested in the VTI driving simulator with promising results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009. 65 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1248
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17453 (URN)978-91-7393-660-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-04-24, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-03-25 Created: 2009-03-25 Last updated: 2013-09-13Bibliographically approved

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Olstam, JohanLundgren, Jan

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