Nitric oxide modulates intracellular translocation of pigment organelles in Xenopus laevis melanophores
2000 (English)In: Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton, ISSN 0886-1544, E-ISSN 1097-0169, Vol. 47, no 3, 209-218 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Pigment organelles in Xenopus laevis melanophores are used by the animal to change skin color, and they provide a good model for studying intracellular organelle transport. Movement of organelles and vesicles along the cytoskeleton is essential for many processes, such as axonal transport, endocytosis, and intercompartmental trafficking. Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule that plays a role in, among other things, relaxation of blood vessels, sperm motility, and polymerization of actin. Our study focused on the effect NO exerts on cytoskeleton-mediated transport, which has previously received little attention. We found that an inhibitor of NO synthesis, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), reduced the melatonin-induced aggregation of the pigment organelles, melanosomes. Preaggregated melanosomes dispersed after treatment with L-NAME but not after exposure to the inactive stereoisomer (D-NAME) or the substrate for NO synthesis (L-arginine). Signal transduction by NO can be mediated through the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), which leads to increased production of cGMP and activation of cGMP-dependent kinases (PKG). We found that both the sGC inhibitor 1H-(1,2,4) oxadiazolo(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) and the cGMP analogue 8-bromoguanosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) reduced melanosome aggregation, whereas the PKG inhibitor KT582 did not. Our results demonstrate that melanosome aggregation depends on synthesis of NO, and NO deprivation causes dispersion. It seems, thus, as if NO and cGMP are essential and can regulate melanosome translocation.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2000. Vol. 47, no 3, 209-218 p.
melanosome, aggregation, cGMP, microtubules, actin, L-NAME
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13570DOI: 10.1002/1097-0169(200011)47:3<209::AID-CM4>3.0.CO;2-WOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13570DiVA: diva2:20972