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Experiments and Modelling of Dual Reactive Magnetron Sputtering Using Two Reactive Gases
Department of Solid State Electronics, Uppsala Universitet, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Department of Solid State Electronics, Uppsala Universitet, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2837-3656
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2008 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 26, no 4, 565-570 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reactive sputtering from two elemental targets, aluminium and zirconium, with the addition of two reactive gases, oxygen and nitrogen, is studied experimentally as well as theoretically. The complex behaviour of this process is observed and explained. It is shown that the addition of oxygen to a constant supply of nitrogen, significantly changes the relative content of aluminium with respect to zirconium in the film. Moreover, it is concluded that there is substantially more oxygen than nitrogen in the films even when the oxygen supply is significantly lower than the nitrogen supply. It is further shown that the addition of a certain minimum constant flow of nitrogen reduces, and eventually eliminates, the hysteresis with respect to the oxygen supply. It is concluded that the presented theoretical model for the involved reactions and mass balance during reactive sputtering of two targets in two reactive gases is in qualitative agreement with the experimental results and can be used to find optimum processing conditions for deposition of films of a desired composition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 26, no 4, 565-570 p.
Keyword [en]
Reactive Sputtering, Modelling, Oxynitrides, Aluminium, Zirconium
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17527DOI: 10.1116/1.2913582OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-17527DiVA: diva2:209758
Available from: 2009-03-27 Created: 2009-03-27 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Nanocrystalline Alumina-Zirconia Thin Films Grown by Magnetron Sputtering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanocrystalline Alumina-Zirconia Thin Films Grown by Magnetron Sputtering
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Alumina-zirconia thin films have been deposited using dual magnetron sputtering. Film growth was performed at relatively low-to-medium temperatures, ranging from ~300°C to 810 °C. Different substrates were applied, including silicon (100), and industrially relevant materials, such as WC-Co hardmetal. Both radio-frequency sputtering and direct-current magnetron sputtering were utilised to achieve a range of film compositions. The influence of sputtering target was investigated; both ceramics and metals were used as sputtering sources. Microstructural characterisation was performed with a range of electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques which show that the pure zirconia was deposited in the monoclinic phase. Reduced mobility of depositing species, as in the case of direct-current sputtering, yielded preferred crystallographic orientation in the {100} directions. The initial nucleation layer consisted of the metastable tetragonal zirconia phase. This phase could be grown over film thicknesses ~1 μm through the addition of ~3 at.% Al under similar low mobility conditions. For cases of higher mobility, as obtained through radio-frequency sputtering, the metastable cubic zirconia phase formed in the film bulk for alumina-zirconia nanocomposites. A combination of two mechanisms is suggested for the stabilisation of metastable zirconia phases: oxygen-deficiency and aluminium segregations with resultant restraint on the zirconia lattice. The sputter deposition process was investigated through energy resolved mass spectrometry in the case of radio-frequency sputtering; the sputter deposition flux contained a mixture of metallic ions, metaloxygen clusters, and oxygen ions. The presence of metal-oxygen clusters was found to be important in oxygen-stoichiometry and thus the phase selection of the resultant film. The energy distributions were similar when comparing sputtering from ceramic and metallic targets. A mass-balance model has also been developed for the transport phenomena and reactions of particles in reactive sputtering of two targets in a two-gas scenario for the alumina-zirconia system. Addition of nitrogen to the working gas was found to eliminate the hysteresis in the target poisoning for oxygen reactive sputtering. The higher reactivity of oxygen contributed to a higher oxygen content in resultant films compared to the oxygen content in the oxy-nitride working gas. The model was thus shown to be successful for tuning depositions in the alumina-zirconia oxy-nitride system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping : Linköping University Electronic Presws, 2008. 68 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1153
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17529 (URN)978-91-85895-18-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-02-22, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2009-04-03 Created: 2009-03-27 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved

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Trinh, David HuyHultman, LarsHögberg, Hans

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