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Mass-spectrometry of the positive-ion flux during radio-frequency sputter deposition of alumina-zirconia nanocomposites
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2837-3656
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The flux of positive ions during radio-frequency magnetron sputter deposition of zirconium oxide and aluminium oxide has been studied by mass-spectrometry. Deposition from single ceramic and metallic targets as well as the combined process containing two targets has been investigated. The ratio of metal-oxide clusters to purely metallic ions in the plasma was measured. For metallic targets, this ratio increased for increasing pressure, while for ceramic targets the ratio remained constant at a level lower than that for the metallic targets. The increase in the proportion of clusters when comparing between sputtering from metallic and ceramic targets is linked to the formation of stoichiometric films in the former case. The amount of oxygen ions in the plasma available for the formation of the film was also studied and found to be reduced when sputtering two targets instead of one, increasing the likelihood of the formation of oxygen deficient films. The positive ion energy distributions for metallic ions in the aluminium and zirconium oxide systems and the dependence of plasma potential on the total pressure are also reported.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17528OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-17528DiVA: diva2:209760
Available from: 2009-03-27 Created: 2009-03-27 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Nanocrystalline Alumina-Zirconia Thin Films Grown by Magnetron Sputtering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanocrystalline Alumina-Zirconia Thin Films Grown by Magnetron Sputtering
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Alumina-zirconia thin films have been deposited using dual magnetron sputtering. Film growth was performed at relatively low-to-medium temperatures, ranging from ~300°C to 810 °C. Different substrates were applied, including silicon (100), and industrially relevant materials, such as WC-Co hardmetal. Both radio-frequency sputtering and direct-current magnetron sputtering were utilised to achieve a range of film compositions. The influence of sputtering target was investigated; both ceramics and metals were used as sputtering sources. Microstructural characterisation was performed with a range of electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques which show that the pure zirconia was deposited in the monoclinic phase. Reduced mobility of depositing species, as in the case of direct-current sputtering, yielded preferred crystallographic orientation in the {100} directions. The initial nucleation layer consisted of the metastable tetragonal zirconia phase. This phase could be grown over film thicknesses ~1 μm through the addition of ~3 at.% Al under similar low mobility conditions. For cases of higher mobility, as obtained through radio-frequency sputtering, the metastable cubic zirconia phase formed in the film bulk for alumina-zirconia nanocomposites. A combination of two mechanisms is suggested for the stabilisation of metastable zirconia phases: oxygen-deficiency and aluminium segregations with resultant restraint on the zirconia lattice. The sputter deposition process was investigated through energy resolved mass spectrometry in the case of radio-frequency sputtering; the sputter deposition flux contained a mixture of metallic ions, metaloxygen clusters, and oxygen ions. The presence of metal-oxygen clusters was found to be important in oxygen-stoichiometry and thus the phase selection of the resultant film. The energy distributions were similar when comparing sputtering from ceramic and metallic targets. A mass-balance model has also been developed for the transport phenomena and reactions of particles in reactive sputtering of two targets in a two-gas scenario for the alumina-zirconia system. Addition of nitrogen to the working gas was found to eliminate the hysteresis in the target poisoning for oxygen reactive sputtering. The higher reactivity of oxygen contributed to a higher oxygen content in resultant films compared to the oxygen content in the oxy-nitride working gas. The model was thus shown to be successful for tuning depositions in the alumina-zirconia oxy-nitride system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping : Linköping University Electronic Presws, 2008. 68 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1153
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17529 (URN)978-91-85895-18-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-02-22, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-04-03 Created: 2009-03-27 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved

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Trinh, David HuyHultman, LarsHögberg, Hans

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