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Assessment of Smoking Behaviors in the Home and Their Influence on Children's Passive Smoking: Development of a Questionnaire
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Department of Health Sciences, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden .
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2005 (English)In: Annals of Epidemiology, ISSN 1047-2797, Vol. 15, no 6, 453-459 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

To construct and validate a questionnaire aiming to measure children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the home.

Methods

The development of the instrument included epidemiological studies, qualitative interviews, pilot studies, and validation with biomarkers and is described in seven consecutive steps. Parents of preschool children, from different population-based samples in south-east Sweden, have participated in the studies.

Results

Content and face validity was tested by an expert panel and core elements for the purpose of the instrument identified. Reliability was shown with test-retest of the first version. The validation with biomarkers indicated that the sensitivity of the instrument was high enough to discriminate between children's ETS exposure levels. Cotinine/creatinine levels were related to parents' described smoking behaviors. Differences were shown between children from non-smoking homes, and all groups with smoking parents, independent of their smoking behavior (p < 0.01), as well as between parents smoking strictly outdoors and parents reporting indoor smoking (p < 0.001).

Conclusion

The results indicate that the presented instrument can be used to discriminate between different levels of ETS exposure and when children's level of tobacco smoke exposure is to be assessed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 15, no 6, 453-459 p.
Keyword [en]
Cotinine; ETS; Parents; Outdoor Smoking
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13624DOI: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2004.09.012OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13624DiVA: diva2:21073
Available from: 2004-03-12 Created: 2004-03-12 Last updated: 2009-05-20
In thesis
1. Passive Smoking in Children: The Importance of Parents’ Smoking and Use of Protective Measures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Passive Smoking in Children: The Importance of Parents’ Smoking and Use of Protective Measures
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Passive smoking has been recognised as a health hazard, and chidren are especially vulnerable. The general aim of this thesis was to describe and analyse the importance of parents’ smoking and smoking behaviour for children’s tobacco smoke exposure. The studies were conducted in the South-East part of Sweden and pre-school children and their parents constituted the study samples. Five studies are described in six papers. Smoking prevalence among parents (14%) and commonly used measures of protection were surveyed. An instrument designed to measure children’s tobacco smoke exposure in the home was developed and validated. It was used on 687 families with a smoking parent and a child 2½-3 years old, included in a prospective cohort study on environmental variables of importance for immun-mediated diseases ABIS (All Babies in South-East Sweden). Almost 60% of the parents stated that they always smoked outdoors with the door closed, 14% mixed this with smoking near the kitchen fan, 12% near an open door, 7% mixed all these behaviours and 8 % smoked indoors without precautions. The smoking behaviours were related to the children’s creatinine adjusted urine cotinine. All groups had significantly higher values than had children from non-smoking homes, controls. Outdoor smoking with the door closed seemed to be the best, though not a total, measure for tobacco smoke protection in the home.

Most parents were aware of the importance of protecting children from tobacco smoke exposure but all were not convinced of the increased risk for disease for exposed children. The majority of parents were not satisfied with the smoking prevention in health-care and 50% did not think that their smoking was of any concern to the child health care nurse.

Further research is warranted to describe if the difference in exposure score related to smoking behaviours is related to different prevalence of disease. Efforts are needed to convince those who still smoke indoors that tobacco smoke exposure influence children’s health and that consequent outdoor smoking with the door closed seemed to give the best protection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2004. 80 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 831
Keyword
ETS, infant, child, cotinine, smoking behaviour, protective measures, parents, home, tobacco, child health care, ABIS
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-5174 (URN)91-7373-801-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-02-13, Victoriasalen, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
Article I: copyright (2003), with permission from Oxford University Press. On the day of the public defence the status of article III was: Submitted and the status of article VI was: Revised and resubmitted and the original title was: Attitudes to children’s tobacco smoke exposure among smoking and non-smoking parents and their opinions on how the issue is handled in health care.Available from: 2004-03-12 Created: 2004-03-12 Last updated: 2012-01-25Bibliographically approved

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Johansson, AnnaKarinHermansson, GöranLudvigsson, Johnny

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