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How should parents protect their children from environmental tobacco-smoke exposure in the home?
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2004 (English)In: Pediatrics, ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 113, no 4, 291-295 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background. Children’s exposure to tobacco smoke is known to have adverse health effects, and most parents try to protect their children.

Objective. To examine the effectiveness of parents’ precautions for limiting their children’s tobacco-smoke exposure and to identify variables associated to parents’ smoking behavior.

Design and participants. Children, 2.5 to 3 years old, participating in All Babies in Southeast Sweden, a prospective study on environmental factors affecting development of immune-mediated diseases. Smoking parents of 366 children answered a questionnaire on their smoking behavior. Cotinine analyses were made on urine specimen from these children and 433 age-matched controls from nonsmoking homes.

Results. Smoking behavior had a significant impact on cotinine levels. Exclusively outdoor smoking with the door closed gave lower urine cotinine levels of children than when mixing smoking near the kitchen fan and near an open door or indoors but higher levels than controls.

Variables of importance for smoking behavior were not living in a nuclear family (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.1–4.1) and high cigarette consumption (odds ratio: 1.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-2.1).

An exposure score with controls as the reference group (1.0) gave an exposure score for outdoor smoking with the door closed of 2.0, for standing near an open door + outdoors of 2.4, for standing near the kitchen fan + outdoors of 3.2, for mixing near an open door, kitchen fan, and outdoors of 10.3, and for indoor smoking of 15.2.

Conclusion. Smoking outdoors with the door closed was not a total but the most effective way to protect children from environmental tobacco-smoke exposure. Other modes of action had a minor effect.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 113, no 4, 291-295 p.
Keyword [en]
ETS, cotinine, children, smoking behavior, measures of precaution
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13626OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13626DiVA: diva2:21075
Available from: 2004-03-12 Created: 2004-03-12 Last updated: 2009-08-19
In thesis
1. Passive Smoking in Children: The Importance of Parents’ Smoking and Use of Protective Measures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Passive Smoking in Children: The Importance of Parents’ Smoking and Use of Protective Measures
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Passive smoking has been recognised as a health hazard, and chidren are especially vulnerable. The general aim of this thesis was to describe and analyse the importance of parents’ smoking and smoking behaviour for children’s tobacco smoke exposure. The studies were conducted in the South-East part of Sweden and pre-school children and their parents constituted the study samples. Five studies are described in six papers. Smoking prevalence among parents (14%) and commonly used measures of protection were surveyed. An instrument designed to measure children’s tobacco smoke exposure in the home was developed and validated. It was used on 687 families with a smoking parent and a child 2½-3 years old, included in a prospective cohort study on environmental variables of importance for immun-mediated diseases ABIS (All Babies in South-East Sweden). Almost 60% of the parents stated that they always smoked outdoors with the door closed, 14% mixed this with smoking near the kitchen fan, 12% near an open door, 7% mixed all these behaviours and 8 % smoked indoors without precautions. The smoking behaviours were related to the children’s creatinine adjusted urine cotinine. All groups had significantly higher values than had children from non-smoking homes, controls. Outdoor smoking with the door closed seemed to be the best, though not a total, measure for tobacco smoke protection in the home.

Most parents were aware of the importance of protecting children from tobacco smoke exposure but all were not convinced of the increased risk for disease for exposed children. The majority of parents were not satisfied with the smoking prevention in health-care and 50% did not think that their smoking was of any concern to the child health care nurse.

Further research is warranted to describe if the difference in exposure score related to smoking behaviours is related to different prevalence of disease. Efforts are needed to convince those who still smoke indoors that tobacco smoke exposure influence children’s health and that consequent outdoor smoking with the door closed seemed to give the best protection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2004. 80 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 831
Keyword
ETS, infant, child, cotinine, smoking behaviour, protective measures, parents, home, tobacco, child health care, ABIS
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-5174 (URN)91-7373-801-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-02-13, Victoriasalen, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note
Article I: copyright (2003), with permission from Oxford University Press. On the day of the public defence the status of article III was: Submitted and the status of article VI was: Revised and resubmitted and the original title was: Attitudes to children’s tobacco smoke exposure among smoking and non-smoking parents and their opinions on how the issue is handled in health care.Available from: 2004-03-12 Created: 2004-03-12 Last updated: 2012-01-25Bibliographically approved

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Johansson, AnnaKarinHermansson, GöranLudvigsson, Johnny

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