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Functional Modeling of Constraint Management in Aviation Safety and Command and Control
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis has shown that the concept of constraint management is instrumental in understanding the domains of command and control and aviation safety. Particularly, functional modeling as a means to address constraint management provides a basis for analyzing the performance of socio-technical systems. In addition to the theoretical underpinnings, six studies are presented.

          First, a functional analysis of an exercise conducted by a team of electricity network emergency managers is used to show that a team function taxonomy can be used to analyze the mapping between team tasks and information and communication technology to assess training needs for performance improvement. Second, an analysis of a fire-fighting emergency management simulation is used to show that functional modeling and visualization of constraints can describe behavior vis-à-vis constraints and inform decision support design. Third, analysis of a simulated adversarial command and control task reveals that functional modeling may be used to describe and facilitate constraint management (constraining the adversary and avoiding being constrained by the adversary).

          Studies four and five address the domain of civil aviation safety. The analysis of functional resonance is applied to an incident in study four and an accident in study five, based on investigation reports. These studies extend the functional resonance analysis method and accident model. The sixth study documents the utility of this functional modeling approach for risk assessment by evaluating proposed automation for air traffic control, based on observations, interviews, and experimental data.

          In sum, this thesis adds conceptual tools and modeling methods to the cognitive systems engineering discipline that can be used to tackle problems of training environment design, decision support, incident and accident analysis, and risk assessment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2009. , 134 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1249
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17639ISBN: 978-91-7393-659-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-17639DiVA: diva2:210824
Public defence
2009-04-30, Key 1, hus Key, campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-04-06 Created: 2009-04-06 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A case study of information and communication technology in emergency management training
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A case study of information and communication technology in emergency management training
2006 (English)In: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 3, no 4, 332-347 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses the roles of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in training for effective emergency management and inter-organisational coordination. Collocation can encourage the development of common ground and trust and, in turn, result in greater efficiency and effectiveness. We expect to find communication and artefact use during collocated training that cannot readily transfer to the ICT used to link distributed work settings. This expectation makes the reliance on ICT and distributed work during emergency management operations suspect. To test these claims, we observed a large-scale, real-time exercise designed to facilitate cooperation among electricity and telecommunications companies. The exercise scenario was similar to the January 2005 windstorm that left much of southern Sweden without electricity or telephone service and revealed the need for better cooperation among utility providers. The observations suggest that while collocation is clearly beneficial, a mismatch in ICT use between collocated training and distributed emergency management operations is likely to be detrimental for preparedness.

Keyword
emergency management; training; artefact use; collocated work; distributed work; real-time exercise; inter-organisational coordination; cooperation; information technology; communications; ICT; Sweden; electricity companies; telecommunications companies
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12838 (URN)10.1504/IJEM.2006.011300 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-12-19 Created: 2007-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14
2. Representation of spatio-temporal resource constraints in network-based command and control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Representation of spatio-temporal resource constraints in network-based command and control
2008 (English)In: Naturalistic decision making and macrocognition: Ed.: Schraagen, J.M.C., Militello, L., Ormerod, T., & Lipshitz, R., Aldershot, United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing Limited , 2008, 351-371 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aldershot, United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2008
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17587 (URN)987-0-7546-7020 (ISBN)
Available from: 2009-04-03 Created: 2009-04-03 Last updated: 2009-05-19
3. Functional modeling of agile command and control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional modeling of agile command and control
2009 (English)In: 14th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS), Washington, DC, USA: DOD CCRP , 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A critical element to successful command and control (C2) is developing and updating an accurate and lucid model of the interdependencies between functional units, e.g., multiple platoons of artillery and tanks. Two of the challenges to this understanding are (1) the adoption of a detailed description of interdependency and the associated understanding of interdependent functions (Brehmer, 2007) and (2) the application of that description to both own and opponent forces’ opportunities and vulnerabilities to provide for agility (Alberts, 2007). This paper documents a straightforward approach to modeling functional interdependency that addresses these challenges. The Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM; Hollnagel, 2004) is shown to describe the C2 functions of the DOODA loop (Brehmer, 2007) and the tactical and operational functions of military activity. FRAM models are applied to own and opponent forces in a computer-based dynamic war-game (DKE) to reveal and characterize both agile and unsuccessful C2 practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, DC, USA: DOD CCRP, 2009
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17588 (URN)
Conference
14th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Washington D.C,USA June 15-17, 2009
Available from: 2009-04-03 Created: 2009-04-03 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
4. Comparing a multi-linear (STEP) and systemic (FRAM) method for accident analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing a multi-linear (STEP) and systemic (FRAM) method for accident analysis
2009 (English)In: Safety, Reliability and Risk Analysis: Theory, Methods and Applications. / [ed] Martorell, S., Guedes Soares, C., & Barnett, J., London, UK: Taylor & Francis Group, 2009, 19-26 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Accident models and analysis methods affect what accident investigators look for, which contributing factors are found, and which recommendations are issued. This paper contrasts the Sequentially Timed Events Plotting (STEP) method and the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) for accident analysis and modelling. The main issues addressed in this paper are comparing the established multi-linear method (STEP) with the systemic method (FRAM) and evaluating which new insights the latter systemic method provides for accident analysis in comparison to the former established multi-linear method. Since STEP and FRAM are based on a different understandings of the nature of accidents, the comparison of the methods focuses on what we can learn from both methods, how, when, and why to apply them. The main finding is that STEP helps to illustrate what happened, whereas FRAM illustrates the dynamic interactions within socio-technical systems and lets the analyst understand the how and why by describing non-linear dependencies, performance conditions, variability, and their resonance across functions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, UK: Taylor & Francis Group, 2009
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17595 (URN)10.1016/j.ress.2010.06.003 (DOI)000266027000003 ()978-0-415-48513-5 (ISBN)
Conference
European Safety and Reliability Association Annual Conference (ESREL), September 2008, Valencia, Spain.
Available from: 2009-04-05 Created: 2009-04-05 Last updated: 2015-06-04
5. An analysis of functional resonance of the Alaska Airlines flight 261 accident
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An analysis of functional resonance of the Alaska Airlines flight 261 accident
2009 (English)In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17636 (URN)
Available from: 2009-04-06 Created: 2009-04-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13
6. Functional modeling for risk assessment of automation in a changing air traffic management environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional modeling for risk assessment of automation in a changing air traffic management environment
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference Working on Safety, Crete, Greece, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17638 (URN)
Available from: 2009-04-06 Created: 2009-04-06 Last updated: 2009-05-19

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Woltjer, Rogier

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