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Organic electronics on micro and nano fibers: from e-textiles to biomolecular nanoelectronics
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Research in the field of conjugated polymers (CPs) has led to the emergence of a number of interesting research areas and commercial applications, including solar cells, flexible displays, printed electronics, biosensors, e-textiles and more.

Some of the advantages of organic electronics materials, as compared to their inorganic counterparts, include high elasticity, and mechanical flexibility, which allows for a natural integration of CPs into fabrics, making them ideal for e-texile. In this thesis, a novel approach for creating transistors is presented, through the construction of electrolyte gated transistors, directly embedded on functional textile fibers. Furthermore theoretical and experimental results of the integration of functional woven devices based on these transistors are shown. The realization of woven digital logic and design schemes for devices that can be placed inside living tissue, for applications such as neural communication, are demonstrated.

Reducing feature sizes in organic electronics is necessity just as in conventional microelectronics, where Moore's law has been the most impressive demonstration of this over the past decades. Here the scheme of self-assembly (SA) of biomolecular/CP hybrid nano-structures is used for creating nano electronics. It is demonstrated that proteins in the form of amyloid fibrils can be coated with the highly conducting polythiophene derivative (PEDOT-S) through molecular self-assembly in water, to form conducting nanowire networks and nanodevices at molecular dimensions. In a second SA scheme, large area patterning of connected micro-nano lines and nano transistors from the conducting polymer PEDOT-S is demonstrated through assembly of these from fluids using soft lithography. Thereby the problems of large area nano patterning, and nano registration are solved for organic electronics. The construction of functional nanoscopic materials and components through molecular self-assembly has the potential to deliver totally new concepts, and may eventually allow cheap mass production of complex three dimensional nano electronic materials and devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2008. , 102 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1224
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17661ISBN: 978-91-7393-763-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-17661DiVA: diva2:211085
Public defence
2008-11-21, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-09-21 Created: 2009-04-08 Last updated: 2010-08-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Towards woven logic from organic electronic fibres
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards woven logic from organic electronic fibres
2007 (English)In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 6, 357-362 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of organic polymers for electronic functions is mainly motivated by the low-end applications, where low cost rather than advanced performance is a driving force. Materials and processing methods must allow for cheap production. Printing of electronics using inkjets1 or classical printing methods has considerable potential to deliver this. Another technology that has been around for millennia is weaving using fibres. Integration of electronic functions within fabrics, with production methods fully compatible with textiles, is therefore of current interest, to enhance performance and extend functions of textiles2. Standard polymer field-effect transistors require well defined insulator thickness and high voltage3, so they have limited suitability for electronic textiles. Here we report a novel approach through the construction of wire electrochemical transistor (WECT) devices, and show that textile monofilaments with 10–100 µm diameters can be coated with continuous thin films of the conducting polythiophene poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), and used to create micro-scale WECTs on single fibres. We also demonstrate inverters and multiplexers for digital logic. This opens an avenue for three-dimensional polymer micro-electronics, where large-scale circuits can be designed and integrated directly into the three-dimensional structure of woven fibres.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17659 (URN)10.1038/nmat1884 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-04-08 Created: 2009-04-08 Last updated: 2011-03-08
2. Electrochemical Devices Made from Conducting Nanowire Networks Self-Assembled from Amyloid Fibrils and Alkoxysulfonate PEDOT
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochemical Devices Made from Conducting Nanowire Networks Self-Assembled from Amyloid Fibrils and Alkoxysulfonate PEDOT
2008 (English)In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, Vol. 8, no 6, 1736-1740 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Proteins offer an almost infinite number of functions and geometries for building nanostructures. Here we have focused on amyloid fibrillar proteins as a nanowire template and shown that these fibrils can be coated with the highly conducting polymer alkoxysulfonate PEDOT through molecular self-assembly in water. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show that the coated fibers have a diameter around 15 nm and a length/thickness aspect ratio >1:1000 . We have further shown that networks of the conducting nanowires are electrically and electrochemically active by constructing fully functional electrochemical transistors with nanowire networks, operating at low voltages between 0 and 0.5 V.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17660 (URN)10.1021/nl0808233 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-04-08 Created: 2009-04-08 Last updated: 2012-09-12
3. Fiber-Embedded Electrolyte-Gated Field-Effect Transistors for e-Textiles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fiber-Embedded Electrolyte-Gated Field-Effect Transistors for e-Textiles
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 21, no 5, 573-577 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrolyte-gate organic field-effect transistors embedded at the junction of textile microfibers are demonstrated. The fiber transistor operates below I V and delivers large current densities. The transience of the organic thin-film transistors current and the impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that the channel is formed in two steps.

Keyword
Conducting polymers, electronic textile, fiber transistor, field-effect transistor
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16982 (URN)10.1002/adma.200802681 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-03-01 Created: 2009-02-27 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved
4. Bridging Dimensions in Organic Electronics: Assembly of Electroactive Polymer Nanodevices from Fluids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bridging Dimensions in Organic Electronics: Assembly of Electroactive Polymer Nanodevices from Fluids
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 9, no 2, 631-635 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Processing and patterning of electroactive materials from solvents is a hallmark of flexible organic electronics,(1) and commercial applications based on these properties are now emerging. Printing and ink-jetting are today preferred technologies for patterning, but these limit the formation of nanodevices, as they give structures way above the micrometer lateral dimension. There is therefore a great need for cheap, large area patterning of nanodevices and methods for top-down registration of these. Here we demonstrate large area patterning of connected micro/nanolines and nanotransistors from the conducting polymer PEDOT, assembled from fluids. We thereby simultaneously solve problems of large area nanopatterning, and nanoregistration.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16960 (URN)10.1021/nl802919w (DOI)
Available from: 2009-02-28 Created: 2009-02-27 Last updated: 2015-05-29
5. Construction of wire electrodesand 3D woven logicas a potential technology forneuroprosthetic implants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Construction of wire electrodesand 3D woven logicas a potential technology forneuroprosthetic implants
Show others...
2008 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 0018-9294Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

New strategies to improve neuron coupling to neuroelectronic implants are needed. In particular, tomaintain functional coupling between implant and neurons, foreign body response like encapsulation must meminimized. Apart from modifying materials to mitigate encapsulation it has been shown that with extremely thinstructures, encapsulation will be less pronounced. We here utilize wire electrochemical transistors (WECTs) usingconducting polymer coated fibers. Monofilaments down to 10 μm can be successfully coated and weaved intocomplex networks with built in logic functions, so called textile logic. Such systems can control signal patterns at alarge number of electrode terminals from a few addressing fibres. Not only is fibre size in the range where lessencapsulation is expected but textiles are known to make successful implants because of their soft and flexiblemechanical properties. Further, textile fabrication provides versatility and even three dimensional networks arepossible. Three possible architectures for neuroelectronic systems are discussed. WECTs are sensitive to dehydrationand materials for better durability or improved encapsulation is needed for stable performance in biologicalenvironments.

Keyword
Conducting polymers, functional electrical stimulation, textile electronics
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20804 (URN)
Available from: 2009-09-21 Created: 2009-09-21

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Organic electronics on micro and nano fibers : from e-textiles to biomolecular nanoelectronics(1593 kB)2839 downloads
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Hamedi, Mahiar

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