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Prevalence of depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and postpartum
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
2001 (English)In: Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, Vol. 80, no 3, 251-255 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Postnatal depression refers to a non-psychotic depressive episode that begins in or extends into the postpartum period. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in a pregnant and later postnatal population, to determine the natural course of these symptoms and whether there is an association between antenatal and postnatal depressive symptomatology.

METHODS: A longitudinal study with a total population of 1,558 consecutively registered pregnant women in the southeast region of Sweden. Presence of depressive symptoms was measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale on four occasions namely in gestational week 35-36, in the maternity ward, 6-8 weeks and 6 months postpartum.

RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms during late pregnancy was 17%; in the maternity ward 18%; 6-8 weeks postnatally 13%; and 6 months postnatally, 13%. A correlation between antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms was found (r=0.50, p<0.0001).

CONCLUSION: Detection of women at risk for developing postnatal depressive symptoms can be done during late pregnancy. Antenatal care clinics constitute a natural and useful environment for recognition of women with depressive symptoms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2001. Vol. 80, no 3, 251-255 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13667DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0412.2001.080003251.xOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13667DiVA: diva2:21136
Available from: 2003-04-30 Created: 2003-04-30 Last updated: 2009-08-19
In thesis
1. Postpartum Depression: Epidemiological and Biological Aspects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Postpartum Depression: Epidemiological and Biological Aspects
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Postpartum depression is by definition a major depression with an onset during the first weeks after delivery. In practice, however, the term, postpartum depression is used to characterize all kinds of depressive symptoms after childbirth. The aims of this thesis were to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms during late pregnancy, in the puerperium and four years after delivery, and to analyze the mothers’ estimation of personal health and their children’s behavior at the age of four. Additional goals were to test the predictive power of potential associated factors of postpartum depression during pregnancy and the puerperium and finally, to elucidate possible genetic or neuropeptidergic explanatory variables behind the development of postpartum depression.

A population-based sample of 1489 women was screened with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 17% in late pregnancy and 13% postpartum. Antenatal depressed mood was related to postpartum depression. In a cross-sectional study we later found that postpartum depression was associated with subsequent depressive symptoms and current health problems four years after childbirth. Four-year-old boys of postpartum depressed mothers and children of mothers with a subsequent depressive status had more behavior problems than children of non-symptomatic mothers did, according to the mothers’ opinion.

The strongest associated factors for postpartum depression, in a case-control study, were sick leave during pregnancy mainly due to pregnancy complications, e.g. hyperemesis and premature contractions and a high number of visits to the antenatal care clinic. There was no association between delivery complications or complications in the perinatal period and postpartum depression. The theory that depressive symptoms in late pregnancy or postpartum are connected with CYP2D6 genotype could not be confirmed.

In a rat model, we found that pregnancy and parturition influence the concentrations of neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, substance P and galanin in the rat brain. This result supports the hypothesis that neuropeptidergic systems in the brain influence the mood changes around childbirth. In conclusion, postpartum depression is a common feature with influence on both maternal and child well being.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2003. 57 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 781
Keyword
Postpartum depression, pregnancy, childbirth, case-control study
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-5208 (URN)91-7373-537-X (ISBN)
Public defence
2003-04-11, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
Pages 26 and 57 containing illustrations are removed from the electronic version. On the day of the public defence the status of article IV was: Accepted for publication.Available from: 2003-04-30 Created: 2003-04-30 Last updated: 2012-01-25Bibliographically approved

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Josefsson, AnnBerg, GöranNordin, ConnySydsjö, Gunilla

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Obstetrics and gynecology Faculty of Health SciencesDepartment of Gynecology and Obstetrics in LinköpingPsychiatry Department of Psychiatry
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