liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Is calcaneal stiffness more sensitive to physical activity than forearm bone mineral density?: A population-based study of persons aged 20-79 years
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Primary Health Care Laboratory, Vadstena, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6049-5402
Show others and affiliations
2004 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, Vol. 32, no 5, 333-339 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between forearm bone mineral density (BMD), calcaneal stiffness, and physical activity levels in a normal population using different non-invasive methods.

Methods: The participants were invited to undergo bone measurements using single photon absorptiometry of the forearm and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneal bone, and also to complete a questionnaire. Physical activity levels were designated low, moderate, and high in the question on leisure-time activity.

Results: There were 956 participants included in the present study. Forearm BMD in the eighth age decade was 0.40 g/cm2 (95% CI 0.33 - 0.46 g/cm2) lower than in the third decade among women and 0.28 g/cm2 (95% CI 0.18 - 0.37 g/cm2) lower among men. The differences in calcaneal stiffness between the same age decades were 22.4 (95% CI 17.5 - 27.4) among women and 15.8 (95% CI 8.0 - 23.5) among men. The correlation between forearm BMD and calcaneal stiffness was 0.58 (95% CI 0.52 - 0.64) in women and 0.34 (95% CI 0.25 - 0.42) in men. Reported moderate and high leisure-time activity levels in both genders were associated with higher calcaneal stiffness but not with forearm BMD.

Conclusions: The QUS may be used to measure the effect of present physical activity levels on calcaneal bone at the population level. Further longitudinal studies are warranted in order to determine the most appropriate non-invasive method in population-based studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 32, no 5, 333-339 p.
Keyword [en]
community-based interventions, osteoporosis, prevention, quantitative ultrasound, questionnaire, reference values, single photon absorptiometry
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13682DOI: 10.1080/14034940410026273OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13682DiVA: diva2:21154
Available from: 2003-05-19 Created: 2003-05-19 Last updated: 2013-09-05
In thesis
1. Community-based osteoporosis prevention: Physical activity in relation to bone density, fall prevention, and the effect of training programmes: The Vadstena Osteoporosis Prevention Project
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Community-based osteoporosis prevention: Physical activity in relation to bone density, fall prevention, and the effect of training programmes: The Vadstena Osteoporosis Prevention Project
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is based on studies of the ten-year community-based intervention programme entitled, the Vadstena Osteoporosis Prevention Project (VOPP). The specific aims of the research were to describe the effects of physical activity and training programmes on bone mass and balance performance in adults, to determine whether a fall risk prevention programme could motivate personal actions among the elderly, to ascertain whether the intervention programme could reduce the incidence of forearm and hip fractures.

Two studies addressed training programmes for middle-aged and old people. First, VOPP participants who were aged 40–70 years and had low forearm bone mineral density (BMD) values were invited to take part in a one-year weight-bearing training study. Thirty of those individuals were included in the investigation. Additional bone mass measurements were performed at the hip and the lumbar spine, and balance and aerobic capacity were also tested. The training programme was performed twice a week (I). In the second study, healthy persons aged 70–75 years were invited to participate in a balance-training study. Fifteen persons joined an exercise group, and another fifteen were controls. The training programme comprised specific balance exercises and was carried out twice a week for nine weeks (II). The association between forearm BMD values and several lifestyle factors was explored in random samples of the population aged 20–72 years (n=880) in a cross-sectional study (III). Another study explored the association between calcaneal stiffness, forearm BMD, and lifestyle factors amongst participants aged 20–79 years (n=956) at the final registration of the VOPP (V). Effects of the VOPP interventions directed at environmental risk factors for falls and the promotion of physical activity were examined in people aged ≥ 65 years (IV). The incidence of forearm and hip fractures was studied amongst middle-aged and elderly individuals in the intervention and the control communities during the study period 1987–2001 (VI).

The exercise group (n=15) in the weight-bearing training study showed increases in BMD at the greater trochanter (p<0.01), one-leg stance balance with the eyes closed and coordination tests (p<0.05), and aerobic capacity (p<0.05). No significant difference was found when the groups were compared concerning changes in the different tests during the intervention period (I). In the balance-training study, the exercise group showed post-training improvement in the following tests: standing on the right leg with eyes closed (p<0.01), standing on the right leg (p<0.01) and on the left leg (p<0.05) while turning the head, and walking 30 metres (p<0.01). There were significant differences between the groups in these tests when changes were compared at the post-intervention test (II). Age (p<0.0001) and body mass index (p≤.0001) were associated with forearm BMD in both sexes. Reported moderate physical activity levels in men were positively associated with forearm BMD (p<0.05) (III). In both sexes, reported moderate (p<0.05) and high (women p<0.05 and men p<0.001) physical activity levels were positively associated with calcaneal stiffness. The correlation coefficient between forearm BMD and calcaneal stiffness was 0.58 in women and 0.34 in men (V). Persons aged ≥ 65 years at the follow-up in 1994 reported more use of shoe/cane spikes

and moderate physical activity levels compared to controls (IV). There was no change in the general incidence of forearm and hip fractures between the communities for the study period. However, there was a tendency towards decreasing incidence of forearm and trochanteric hip fracture in both sexes during the late intervention period in the intervention community (VI).

A community-based intervention programme aimed at reducing the incidence of osteoporotic fractures must be regarded as a long-term project and should preferably be monitored over an extended post-intervention period.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2003. 50 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 788
Keyword
Vadstena Osteoporosis Prevention Project (VOPP), weight-bearing training study, physical activity, training programmes, elderly, forearm bone mineral density (BMD), balance-training
National Category
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-5212 (URN)91-7373-547-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2003-05-08, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
On the day of the public defence the statuses of articles IV and V were Submitted and VI was ManuscriptAvailable from: 2003-05-19 Created: 2003-05-19 Last updated: 2013-09-05Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textLink to Ph.D. Thesis

Authority records BETA

Grahn Kronhed, Ann-CharlotteLöfman, OveTimpka, ToomasToss, Göran

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Grahn Kronhed, Ann-CharlotteLöfman, OveTimpka, ToomasToss, Göran
By organisation
Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health ScienceFaculty of Health SciencesDepartment of Department of Health and SocietyInternal Medicine
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 206 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf