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Radon in natural waters: Analytical Methods; Correlation to Environmental Parameters; Radiation Dose Estimation; and GIS Applications
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Investigations of radon in natural water and its relation to physical and chemical parameters are outlined in this thesis. In particular, a method for measuring 222Rn in water at low concentrations (~20 mBq.l-1) is described, followed by discussions concerning the design and its application to study both radon and parameters influencing radon levels in natural waters. A topic considered is the impact of fluoride and other aquatic parameters on radon in water. Moreover, variables such as uranium series radionuclides and stable elements in water, bedrock and sediment radioactivity and geology are investigated in two case studies. This was performed by employing radiometric-, chemical-, statistical- and GIS & geostatistical- analyses. The general water chemistry and presence of some elements such as fluoride was observed to influence radon levels in water. Health aspects of radon in drinking water are discussed based on radiation dose assessments. The radiation doses are compared with and added to doses incurred from ingestion of uranium, radium and polonium isotopes in drinking water and inhalation of radon in air in order to estimate total exposures for different age categories. The results may have a potential for future epidemiological studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2003. , 46 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 820
Keyword [en]
Radon analysis, radiation effects, Water chemistry, Water pollution, radioactive analysis
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-5221ISBN: 91-7373-510-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-5221DiVA: diva2:21183
Public defence
2003-11-07, Elsa Brändströmsalen, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2003-12-18 Created: 2003-12-18 Last updated: 2012-01-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Determination of 222Rn and 226Ra in water using a large volume ionisation chamber
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of 222Rn and 226Ra in water using a large volume ionisation chamber
2000 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, Vol. 48, no 2, 235-245 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new method for measuring 222Rn and 226Ra in water has been devised. It is based on exhaling radon to a void volume by continuous bubbling of air through the water. The exhaled radon is then transferred in a closed circuit to a modified radon gas pulse ionisation chamber for alpha-spectrometric measurements. About 86% of the radon in water is transferred from 0.75 l of water to the void volume (3.2 l). The set-up offers direct and specific 222Rn measurements for a wide range of concentrations and shows a low detection limit (LLD=45 mBq l−1 for 8 h counting time). Radium in water is measured, via radon, after sample storage for a month. The method was compared with gamma ray spectrometry for radon and for radium, the latter after pre-concentration by co-precipitation with MnO2 from 10 l water samples. An excellent agreement between the two techniques was obtained. As a part of a radon survey, the method was employed for analysis of drinking water from bedrock wells.

Keyword
Radon, Radium, Drinking water, Ground water, Measurement, Ionisation chamber
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13698 (URN)10.1016/S0265-931X(99)00062-4 (DOI)
Available from: 2003-12-18 Created: 2003-12-18 Last updated: 2009-08-20
2. 222Rn in coastal waters: onboard analysis of 222Rn depth-profiles and evaluation of non-supported content
Open this publication in new window or tab >>222Rn in coastal waters: onboard analysis of 222Rn depth-profiles and evaluation of non-supported content
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13699 (URN)
Note

This paper will nog be published.

Available from: 2003-12-18 Created: 2003-12-18 Last updated: 2017-01-11Bibliographically approved
3. Impact of fluoride and other aquatic parameters on radon concentration in natural waters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of fluoride and other aquatic parameters on radon concentration in natural waters
Show others...
2004 (English)In: Journal of Applied Radiation & Isotopes, ISSN 0969-8043, Vol. 60, no 1, 99-104 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Radon (222Rn) accumulation in water in relation to stable elements was studied for the purpose of determining factors influencing the transfer of 222Rn to and from water. In 72 groundwater samples, 222Rn and about 70 analytical parameters were analysed using radiometric and ICP-MS techniques. Using multivariate statistics (partial least squares), it was observed that 222Rn has a positive correlation with fluoride and uranium. The correlation with fluoride was further investigated by a laboratory time-scale experiment to measure the emanation of 222Rn from water as a function of fluoride, pH and carbonate. The transfer of 222Rn from water was measured by continuous monitoring in air in a closed loop set-up. It was observed that fluoride in water adhere or trap 222Rn preferably in acidic water (pH 3). It is suspected that natural physical processes (such as diffusion and microbubble phenomenon) are less effective to transport 222Rn in the presence of fluoride.

Keyword
Radon, Fluoride, Microbubble, Stable elements
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13700 (URN)10.1016/j.apradiso.2003.10.007 (DOI)
Available from: 2003-12-18 Created: 2003-12-18 Last updated: 2009-08-20
4. Uranium and thorium series radionuclides in drinking water from drilled bedrock wells: correlation to geology and bedrock radioactivity and dose estimation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uranium and thorium series radionuclides in drinking water from drilled bedrock wells: correlation to geology and bedrock radioactivity and dose estimation
2002 (English)In: Radiation protection dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, Vol. 102, no 3, 249-258 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Natural radioactivity in drinking water from 328 drilled wells was studied in correlation to source parameters. Poor correlation to both aquifer geology and bedrock radioactivity was observed. Concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra, 222Rn and 210Po in groundwater samples was in the ranges <0.027-5.3, <0.016-4.9, <0.014-1.24, 5-8105 and <0.05-0.947 Bq.l(-1) respectively. In about 80% of the sites the radon concentration exceeds the Nordic recommended exemption level for radon in drinking water and 15% of the sites exceed the action limit. The effective doses from ingestion were calculated and presented in association with geology. Doses due to ingestion ranged between 0.05 and 20.4 mSv.y(-1), where the average contribution from 222Rn amounted to 75%. In comparison, the effective doses from inhalation of indoor 222Rn ranged between 0.2 and 20 mSv.y(-1). The average contribution from inhalation of 222Rn in air to the total effective dose (ingestion+inhalation) was 58 +/- 22%, 73 +/- 18% and 77 +/- 16% (1 SD) for the age categories 1 y, 10 y and adults respectively.

National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13701 (URN)
Available from: 2003-12-18 Created: 2003-12-18 Last updated: 2009-08-20
5. Spatial correlation between radon (222Rn) in groundwater and bedrock uranium (238U): GIS and geostatistical analyses
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial correlation between radon (222Rn) in groundwater and bedrock uranium (238U): GIS and geostatistical analyses
2002 (English)In: Journal of Spatial Hydrology, ISSN 1530-4736, Vol. 2, no 2, 1-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study describes approaches to create surface maps of radon in groundwater based on measurements of radon (222Rn) in drilled bedrock wells at unevenly distributed sites and uranium bedrock maps from the South East of Sweden, the Östergotland county (N 58°14’ – N 58°56’and E 14°53’ – E 16°06’), see figure 1. Geostatistical techniques of inverse distance weighted(IDW), kriging and cokriging were compared in terms of their interpolation power and correlation between the produced radon in the water layer and the bedrock uranium layer. The goal of these analyses and calculations is to improve our understanding concerning the factors influencing the transport of radon. Therefore, these interpolation techniques were investigated by optimizing parameters that are used in the specific interpolation. Using the IDW interpolator method at fixed radius enabled us to determine the linkage or search distances for auto correlation, and linkage between radon in water and bedrock. This method showed good agreement with the cokriging method when using uranium concentration as a secondary variable. Good interpolation layers (with least root mean square errors RMSE=232) were obtained by kriging. However, the kriged radon surface showed poor correlation with bedrock uranium layers. The best radon in waterlayer that match with uranium in bedrock layer was produced using IDW interpolator (RMSE=377, using all points). The correlation coefficient (R2) is 0.5 while for the kriging method the best correlation is R2 = 0.1. A compromise between the two approaches is demonstrated.

Keyword
radon, uranium, groundwater, bedrock, GIS, Kriging, IDW
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13702 (URN)
Available from: 2003-12-18 Created: 2003-12-18 Last updated: 2009-08-20
6. Chemical character of drinking water from Swedish crystalline bedrock
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical character of drinking water from Swedish crystalline bedrock
2003 (English)In: Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 0167-6369Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13703 (URN)
Available from: 2003-12-18 Created: 2003-12-18

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Salih, Isam M. Musa

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