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Disability after a stroke and the influence of longterm pain on everyday life
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2002 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, Vol. 16, no 3, 302-310 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pain after a stroke is a symptom often forgotten, unnoticed although it is reported to be a great problem in care. The aim of this study was to describe disability after a stroke and how long-term pain influences everyday life according to the Multidimensional Pain Inventory – Swedish language version (MPI-S) and to test the reliability of this instrument. Forty-three persons were investigated 2 years after the stroke incident: 15 with central post-stroke pain (CPSP), 18 with nociceptive pain mainly in the shoulder and 10 with tension-type headache. Data collection was performed through the MPI-S and a questionnaire regarding assistive devices, also structured interviews based on the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) staircase and the Self-report impairment questionnaire. The results show that the persons suffered moderate to severe pain. Almost half were dependent in ADL. The most often reported impairments and use of assistive devices concerned mobility and/or motion. This was most frequent in persons with nociceptive pain. There were significant differences in persons with central pain and nociceptive pain compared with tension-type headache with regard to mobility- and/or motion-related activities. No statistical differences emerged between age, gender, different types of pain and the MPI-S scales, nor any significant differences in degree of pain as between different types of pain according to the Self-report impairment questionnaire. The reliability analysis of the MPI-S shows good homogeneity in all scales except Interference, Life Control and Affective Distress. This is the first study with MPI-S on mainly older persons and on stroke patients, thus further research is needed on this instrument as well as on which specific activities evoke the pain. This is in order to offer adequate treatment, care and support to persons with pain after a stroke.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 16, no 3, 302-310 p.
Keyword [en]
disability, impairment, stroke, chronic pain, activities of daily living, the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Swedish language version (MPI-S), spouse, family
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13719DOI: 10.1046/j.1471-6712.2002.00090.xOAI: diva2:21202
Available from: 2004-01-18 Created: 2004-01-18 Last updated: 2009-06-08
In thesis
1. Living with Long-Term Pain after a Stroke
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Living with Long-Term Pain after a Stroke
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The general aim of this thesis was to classify and describe long-term pain two years after a stroke and to describe the experiences of pain, and the consequences it has on the persons’ lives. The studies were conducted from a multidimensional perspective on pain, combining quantitative and qualitative methods. Three types of long-term pain were classified and described among the 43 participants included, aged 33-82 years. These were central post-stroke pain, nociceptive, mainly shoulder pain, and tension-type headache. Pain onset, within one to six months in most of the cases was after discharge from the hospital. Continuous pain or pain almost every day was reported by nearly two-thirds. The pain was mostly described as troublesome, annoying and tiring in all pain groups. The rating of pain intensity revealed individual differences among the participants within the pain groups. In addition to long-term pain, the participants suffered several impairments and nearly half of them were dependent on others, and two-thirds on assistive devices. Several coping strategies were described, most often problem-focused. Their health-related quality of life was decreased, mostly related to their long-term pain and physical impairments. Their experiences of caring revealed the need of improvements in knowledge about longterm pain, attention and understanding among the professionals, and continuity in the contacts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2003. 78 p.
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 827
stroke, central pain, chronic pain, neuropathic pain, nociceptive pain, shoulder, pain, tension-type headache, pain assessment, disability, activities of daily living, coping, health-related quality of life, mood, caring
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-5228 (URN)91-7373-518-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2003-12-12, Aulan, Örbero universitet, Örebro, 13:00 (English)
On the day of the public defence the status of article III was: Accepted for publication and the status of article IV was: In press.Available from: 2004-01-18 Created: 2004-01-18 Last updated: 2012-01-25Bibliographically approved

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