Lysophosphatidic acid: Physiological effects and structure-activity relationships
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Lipids havepreviously been considered primarily as building blocks of the cell membrane, but are now also recognized as important cell signaling molecules. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a glycerophospholipid consisting of a phosphate head group, a linker region, and a lipophilic tail. LPA has earlier been shown to exert a diversity of cellular effects such as aggregation, apoptosis, contraction, migration, and proliferation. The effects of LPA are elicited by activation of its cognate G protein-coupled receptors LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3. In the present study we have used cultures of human smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and erythroleukemia cells (HEL), and isolated human platelets to characterize physiological effects of LPA compared with adrenaline and noradrenaline as well as structure-activity relationships of LPA. SMCs were isolated from biopsies of human myometrium obtained at cesarean sections. We show that cultured myometrial SMCs express multiple LPA and α2-adrenergic receptor subtypes. Treatment of SMCs with LPA and noradrenaline resulted in increases in proliferation. However, LPA elicits a much more pronounced stimulatory effect than noradrenaline. The ability to increase calcium might be one explanation why LPA is more effective. Further studies indicated that several pathways mediate the growth stimulatory effect of LPA where transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors through matrix metalloproteinases as well as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases appears to be important. LPA enantiomers and LPA analogues were synthesized and characterized due to their capacity to increase calcium in HEL cells. Our study is the first to show that both natural (R) and unnatural (S) LPA enantiomers are capable of stimulating cells, suggesting LPA receptors are not stereoselective. Moreover, we have synthesized a LPA analogue with higher maximal effect than LPA by reducing the hydrocarbon chain length. In platelets we demonstrated that LPA is a weak calciumelevating compound which failed to stimulate aggregation. However, in combination with adrenaline, another weak platelet agonist, a complete aggregatory response was obtained in blood from some healthy individuals. These results are important since platelet activation is a key step in distinguishing normal from pathological hemostasis. Since LPA is present at high concentrations in atherosclerotic lesions, the synergistic effect of LPA and adrenaline might be a new risk factor for arterial thrombosis.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2002. , 100 p.
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 751
Lysophospholipids pharmacology, physiology, structure-activity relationship, muscle, smooth, drug effects, myometrium, norepinephrine, epinephrine, signal transduction
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-5237ISBN: 91-7373-192-7OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-5237DiVA: diva2:21230
2002-11-08, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Bornfeldt, Karin E.
On the day of the public defence the status of the article IV was: Submitted for publication.2006-01-172006-01-172012-01-25Bibliographically approved
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