liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Distributions by age and sex of the dimensions of Temperament and Character Inventory in a cross-cultural perspective among Sweden, Germany, and the USA
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Department of Psychiatry and Phsycotherapy, Rostock Univeristy, Germany.
Centre for Psychobioloty of Personality, Washington University, St Louis, USA.
2001 (English)In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, Vol. 89, 747-758 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Distribution by age and sex of the dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory were assessed cross-culturally for samples in Sweden, German, and USA. The Temperament and Character Inventory is a 240-item (Sweden, 238-item), self-administered, true-false format, paper-and-pencil test developed by Cloninger and his co-workers based on his unified biosocial theory of personality. The inventory measures the Temperament dimensions Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, and Persistence as well as the Character dimensions, Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-transcendence. The samples consisted of 300 German subjects, 300 Swedish subjects, and 300 U.S. subjects matched by age cohort and sex. Stability of the personality dimensions was evaluated across samples as were their age and sex distributions. We found significant affects of age, sex, and culture in univariate and multivariate comparisons on the personality dimensions. However, several significant differences in the personality dimensions for both European samples appear to be similar compared with those of the U.S. sample. We have to conclude that sex- and age-specific norms for the dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory are necessary given the established significant differences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2001. Vol. 89, 747-758 p.
National Category
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17834OAI: diva2:212404
Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2009-04-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Personality and its complexity: An investigation of the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personality and its complexity: An investigation of the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In former days the descriptions of personality were based on typologies, reflecting the view that people do not change over time and so have a stable, life-long personality type. Later on exclusive categories were created, but during recent times the understanding of personality has changed due to more dimensional and dynamic thinking.

Cloninger’s personality theory integrates concepts and research findings from neuroanatomy, neurophysiology of behavior and learning, and from developmental, social and clinical psychology. It is postulated that the behavioural systems of temperament and character are related to two major neural systems for the adaptation of experiences on various levels. The continuous interaction between temperament and character affects the personality development in both directions; temperament impacts upon character and vice versa during life.

The development of the TCI was founded on the development of the biosocial theory of personality, which in turn stimulated the further development of the theory. Unfortunately this theory-based approach is not commonly used in the development of personality measurements. The development of a personality questionnaire on the basis of the theory must be viewed as a significant challenge, and this prompted my interest in dealing with and learning more about this personality assessment method.

The objectives of this thesis were a critical evaluation of Cloninger’s theory; a test of its applicability in psychiatric science; and an attempt to contribute to its development.

The main findings of our investigations can be described as follows:

The adaptation of the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was successful and the seven factor structure of Cloninger’s biopsychological theory of personality theory was mainly confirmed by the Swedish normative data and by cross-cultural comparisons between data from Germany, Sweden and the U.S.A.

The results concerning internal consistency and factor structure further underline that the adult version of the TCI is unsuitable for use in adolescents before age of 17 years. For the adolescents the junior TCI is recommended.

Furthermore temperament dimensions seem to be more stable over time compared to the character dimensions. The gender and age differences found suggest that both have to be taken into account in research and clinical application.

The results from our studies suggested that the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) has to be evaluated as a useful tool within the process of validation of diagnosis of a Personality Disorder (PD), especially in clinical practice where it is often difficult to recognise all a patient’s personality disturbances during a short time. Use of the TCI is likely to improve understanding, classification, and subsequently the interpretations in clinical settings.


Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009. 62 p.
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1115
National Category
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17839 (URN)978-91-7393-656-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-05-07, Elsa Brändström salen, Campus US, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2009-08-21Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Link to Ph.D. Thesis

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Brändström, Sven
By organisation
Psychiatry Faculty of Health Sciences
In the same journal
Psychological Reports

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Total: 489 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link