Distributions by age and sex of the dimensions of Temperament and Character Inventory in a cross-cultural perspective among Sweden, Germany, and the USA
2001 (English)In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, Vol. 89, 747-758 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Distribution by age and sex of the dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory were assessed cross-culturally for samples in Sweden, German, and USA. The Temperament and Character Inventory is a 240-item (Sweden, 238-item), self-administered, true-false format, paper-and-pencil test developed by Cloninger and his co-workers based on his unified biosocial theory of personality. The inventory measures the Temperament dimensions Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, and Persistence as well as the Character dimensions, Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-transcendence. The samples consisted of 300 German subjects, 300 Swedish subjects, and 300 U.S. subjects matched by age cohort and sex. Stability of the personality dimensions was evaluated across samples as were their age and sex distributions. We found significant affects of age, sex, and culture in univariate and multivariate comparisons on the personality dimensions. However, several significant differences in the personality dimensions for both European samples appear to be similar compared with those of the U.S. sample. We have to conclude that sex- and age-specific norms for the dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory are necessary given the established significant differences.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2001. Vol. 89, 747-758 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17834OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-17834DiVA: diva2:212404