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Personality and its complexity: An investigation of the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In former days the descriptions of personality were based on typologies, reflecting the view that people do not change over time and so have a stable, life-long personality type. Later on exclusive categories were created, but during recent times the understanding of personality has changed due to more dimensional and dynamic thinking.

Cloninger’s personality theory integrates concepts and research findings from neuroanatomy, neurophysiology of behavior and learning, and from developmental, social and clinical psychology. It is postulated that the behavioural systems of temperament and character are related to two major neural systems for the adaptation of experiences on various levels. The continuous interaction between temperament and character affects the personality development in both directions; temperament impacts upon character and vice versa during life.

The development of the TCI was founded on the development of the biosocial theory of personality, which in turn stimulated the further development of the theory. Unfortunately this theory-based approach is not commonly used in the development of personality measurements. The development of a personality questionnaire on the basis of the theory must be viewed as a significant challenge, and this prompted my interest in dealing with and learning more about this personality assessment method.

The objectives of this thesis were a critical evaluation of Cloninger’s theory; a test of its applicability in psychiatric science; and an attempt to contribute to its development.

The main findings of our investigations can be described as follows:

The adaptation of the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was successful and the seven factor structure of Cloninger’s biopsychological theory of personality theory was mainly confirmed by the Swedish normative data and by cross-cultural comparisons between data from Germany, Sweden and the U.S.A.

The results concerning internal consistency and factor structure further underline that the adult version of the TCI is unsuitable for use in adolescents before age of 17 years. For the adolescents the junior TCI is recommended.

Furthermore temperament dimensions seem to be more stable over time compared to the character dimensions. The gender and age differences found suggest that both have to be taken into account in research and clinical application.

The results from our studies suggested that the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) has to be evaluated as a useful tool within the process of validation of diagnosis of a Personality Disorder (PD), especially in clinical practice where it is often difficult to recognise all a patient’s personality disturbances during a short time. Use of the TCI is likely to improve understanding, classification, and subsequently the interpretations in clinical settings.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2009. , 62 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1115
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17839ISBN: 978-91-7393-656-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-17839DiVA: diva2:212426
Public defence
2009-05-07, Elsa Brändström salen, Campus US, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2009-08-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Swedish normative data on personality using the Temperament and Character Inventory
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish normative data on personality using the Temperament and Character Inventory
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1998 (English)In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 39, no 3, 122-128 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a self-report personality questionnaire based on Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality, which accounts for both normal and abnormal variation in the two major components of personality, temperament and character. Normative data for the Swedish TCI based on a representative Swedish sample of 1,300 adults are presented, and the psychometric properties of the questionnaire are discussed. The structure of the Swedish version replicates the American version well for the means, distribution of scores, and relationships within the between scales and subscales. Further, the Swedish inventory had a reliable factor structure and test-retest performance. The results of this study confirm the theory of temperament and character as a seven-factor model of personality.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17831 (URN)10.1016/S0010-440X(98)90070-0 (DOI)9606577 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. The Swedish Version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): A Cross-Validation of Age and Gender Influences
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Swedish Version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): A Cross-Validation of Age and Gender Influences
2008 (English)In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 24, no 1, 14-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to establish new norms of the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), data from 2,209 Swedish individuals (age between 13 and 80) was analyzed. The second aim was to evaluate the impact of age and gender on the questionnaire scores. The third aim was to investigate whether the TCI can be meaningfully applied to adolescents in personality assessment as a basis for further research and clinical studies. Age and gender showed independent effects on personality dimensions, which implies that age and gender specific norms have to be established for the TCI. Furthermore, the results in terms of inconsistencies in the correlational and factorial structure, as well as low internal consistency scores in the younger age groups, suggest that the adult version of the TCI should not be applied below the age of 17; for these age groups we recommend the use of the junior TCI (JTCI). The inventory is under further development and several items are in need of revision in order to create less complicated formulations, enabling an improvement in the psychometrics.

Keyword
Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), age cohort, Swedish normative data, personality, gender
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17832 (URN)10.1027/1015-5759.24.1.14 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
3. Assessing personality: The Temperament and Character Inventory in a cross-cultural comparison between Germany, Sweden, and the U.S.A.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing personality: The Temperament and Character Inventory in a cross-cultural comparison between Germany, Sweden, and the U.S.A.
1999 (English)In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 84, 1315-1330 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study the American, Swedish, and German versions of the Temperament and Character Inventory were compared based on samples of 330 healthy volunteers each, which had been carefully matched for age and sex. The analyses indicate a high agreement for scores on the temperament and character dimensions and subscales across the samples. Exceptions include minor differences that appear to be due to cultural variations, differences in sampling methods, and of some minor difficulties with two subscales (Exploratory Excitability and Self-acceptance) as well as defining the Persistence factor as an independent dimension of Temperament. The subscales yielded similar internal consistencies, correlational structure, factor structures, and high factor congruence coefficients. The results indicate a cross-cultural transferability of the Temperament and Character dimensions of the inventory. Also, the validity and stability of the seven-factor model of personality, as suggested by Cloninger, is supported.

National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17833 (URN)
Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
4. Distributions by age and sex of the dimensions of Temperament and Character Inventory in a cross-cultural perspective among Sweden, Germany, and the USA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributions by age and sex of the dimensions of Temperament and Character Inventory in a cross-cultural perspective among Sweden, Germany, and the USA
2001 (English)In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 89, 747-758 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Distribution by age and sex of the dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory were assessed cross-culturally for samples in Sweden, German, and USA. The Temperament and Character Inventory is a 240-item (Sweden, 238-item), self-administered, true-false format, paper-and-pencil test developed by Cloninger and his co-workers based on his unified biosocial theory of personality. The inventory measures the Temperament dimensions Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, and Persistence as well as the Character dimensions, Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-transcendence. The samples consisted of 300 German subjects, 300 Swedish subjects, and 300 U.S. subjects matched by age cohort and sex. Stability of the personality dimensions was evaluated across samples as were their age and sex distributions. We found significant affects of age, sex, and culture in univariate and multivariate comparisons on the personality dimensions. However, several significant differences in the personality dimensions for both European samples appear to be similar compared with those of the U.S. sample. We have to conclude that sex- and age-specific norms for the dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory are necessary given the established significant differences.

National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17834 (URN)
Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
5. Further development of the Temperament and Character Inventory
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Further development of the Temperament and Character Inventory
2001 (English)In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 93, 995-1002 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Temperament and Character Inventory is an internationally used personality questionnaire based on Cloninger’s psychobiological theory of personality. Given some limitations of Version 9 a revised version was developed. The structural equivalence of the two versions was demonstrated from a cross-cultural perspective with 309 and 173 healthy volunteers from Sweden and Germany, respectively, who completed both versions in one session. In testing for the replicability of the factors across both samples as well as across both versions, an orthogonal Procrustes rotation method was used. The reliability coefficients for the revision were higher than the former version for both samples. The factor structures of the inventory remain highly equivalent across cultures and across versions. The results indicate a cross-cultural transferability of the Temperament and Character dimensions of the inventory. The stability and the validity of the 7-factor model of personality, as suggested by Cloninger, are supported. The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised represents an important and useful method for the assessment of personality.

National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17837 (URN)
Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
6. Personality disorder diagnosis by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personality disorder diagnosis by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory
2009 (English)In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 50, no 4, 347-352 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Personality disorders (PDs) criteria are still in development. Cloninger's biosocial theory of personality contributed to this discussion. The aim of the study was to explore the relationships between extreme expressions on temperament and an immature character according to Cloninger's assumptions. Eight hundred healthy volunteers and 200 psychiatric inpatients were consecutively recruited each from Sweden and Germany, and were asked to complete the Temperament and Character Inventory, which measures 4 temperament and 3 character dimensions. Patients differed from controls on temperament and character dimensions. The combination of low and very low character scores with extreme scores in either novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence was found more often among patients with PD compared with patients without PD and controls; this is more pronounced with an increasing number of extreme temperament scores. The Temperament and Character Inventory represents a useful tool in the diagnostic process of personality disorders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Maryland Heights, United States: Saunders Elsevier, 2009
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17838 (URN)10.1016/j.comppsych.2008.09.002 (DOI)000266820100008 ()
Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved

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