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Verbal overshadowing and memory conjunction errors in persons with learning disability
Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2006 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006.
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13747OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13747DiVA: diva2:21281
Available from: 2006-01-16 Created: 2006-01-16
In thesis
1. Facing the Illusion Piece by Piece: Face Recognition for Persons with Learning Disability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Facing the Illusion Piece by Piece: Face Recognition for Persons with Learning Disability
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingens övergripande syfte var att undersöka ansiktsigenkänning för personer med och utan utvecklingsstörning. Tre specifika forskningsfrågor undersöktes:

1. Hur ser interaktionen ut mellan familjaritet med ansikten och familjaritet med miljöer när det gäller bildigenkänning för personer med utvecklingsstörning?

2. Kan någon av de 2 teoretiska ansatserna till förklaring av falska minnen (sammanblandning av olika minnen), bindingsansatsen och dubbelprocessansatsen, förklara prestationen för både personer med och utan utvecklingsstörning?

3. Hur förhåller sig arbetsminnesförmåga till prestation i studier av falska minnen?

Resultaten i de 4 artiklarna som ingår i avhandlingen gav svar på frågorna:

1. Interaktionen mellan familjaritet med personer och miljöer kan förklaras med förhållandet mellan personen och miljön, som antingen kan vara frånvarande, närvarande eller osannolikt. Dessa semantiska relationer bestämmer prestationen och en ”lat” semantisk strategi föreslogs.

2. Beroende på uppgiftens svårighetsgrad framkom olika interaktionsmönster mellan grupp och typ av igenkänningsbild, och då särskilt olika antal sammanblandade bilder. Dessa mönster kunde inte förklaras av någon av de 2 teoretisk ansatserna. Därför föreslås ett nytt sätt att tolka resultaten som inkluderar arbetsminne.

3. Hög arbetsminneskapacitet gav 2 effekter: för det första, igenkänning av fler ansiktsdelar, och för det andra, igenkänning av fler ansiktskonfigurationer. Vid höga arbetsminneskrav så används den första effekten mer på bekostnad av den andra.

Det visade sig också att prestationen för personer med utvecklingsstörning på uppgifter med låga arbetsminneskrav liknade prestationen för åldermatchade kontrollpersoner utan utvecklingsstörning på uppgifter med höga arbetsminneskrav. Detta indikerar att utvecklingsstörning kan ”simuleras” genom högre arbetsminneskrav, åtminstone på denna typ av igenkänningsuppgifter. Resultatens implikationer för vittnespsykologi och användandet av fotografier som kognitivt stöd diskuteras.

Abstract [en]

The general purpose of this thesis was to investigate face recognition for persons with or without learning disability. Three specific research questions were investigated:

1. How does familiarity of faces interact with familiarity of environments in pictures for persons with learning disability?

2. Which, if any, of the 2 theoretical approaches to memory conjunction errors, the binding approach and the dual-processing approach, can explain performance for both persons with and without learning disability?

3. How does working memory relate to performance in memory conjunction error studies?

The results of the 4 papers included in this thesis provided answers to the questions:

1. A person by environment interaction was found and was explained by an absent, present or implausible association between the person and the environment in the picture. These semantic relations determined performance and a “lazy” semantic strategy was suggested.

2. Different group by recognition type interaction patterns, and specifically different amounts of conjunction errors, were found for different degrees of task difficulty. These patterns could neither be explained by the dual processing approach nor the binding approach. Hence, a new frame of interpretation which included working memory was suggested.

3. High working memory capacity was associated with 2 effects: firstly, recognition of more facial features and, secondly, recognition of more facial configurations. At high working memory demands, participants relied on the first effect to a higher degree, at the expense of the other.

It was also found that, in a task with low working memory demands, the performance for persons with learning disability was similar to the performance of age-matched controls with higher working memory demands in the task. This indicates that learning disability, at least in this type of recognition task, can be “simulated” by higher working memory demands in a population without learning disability. This finding is discussed in relation to witness psychology and the use of photographs as cognitive assistance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2006. 62 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 347Studies from the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, ISSN 1650-1128 ; 19
Keyword
Face recognition, Memory conjunction error, Binding, Working memory, Learning disability, Witness psychology, Ansiktsigenkänning, Falska minnen, Bindning, Arbetsminne, Utvecklingsstörning, Vittnespsykologi
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-5379 (URN)91-85497-09-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-01-27, Key 1, Keyhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-01-16 Created: 2006-01-16 Last updated: 2014-09-05Bibliographically approved

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Danielsson, HenrikRönnberg, JerkerLevén, Anna

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