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Facing the Illusion Piece by Piece : Face Recognition for Persons with Learning Disability
2006 (English)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingens övergripande syfte var att undersöka ansiktsigenkänning för personer med och utan utvecklingsstörning. Tre specifika forskningsfrågor undersöktes:

1. Hur ser interaktionen ut mellan familjaritet med ansikten och familjaritet med miljöer när det gäller bildigenkänning för personer med utvecklingsstörning?

2. Kan någon av de 2 teoretiska ansatserna till förklaring av falska minnen (sammanblandning av olika minnen), bindingsansatsen och dubbelprocessansatsen, förklara prestationen för både personer med och utan utvecklingsstörning?

3. Hur förhåller sig arbetsminnesförmåga till prestation i studier av falska minnen?

Resultaten i de 4 artiklarna som ingår i avhandlingen gav svar på frågorna:

1. Interaktionen mellan familjaritet med personer och miljöer kan förklaras med förhållandet mellan personen och miljön, som antingen kan vara frånvarande, närvarande eller osannolikt. Dessa semantiska relationer bestämmer prestationen och en ”lat” semantisk strategi föreslogs.

2. Beroende på uppgiftens svårighetsgrad framkom olika interaktionsmönster mellan grupp och typ av igenkänningsbild, och då särskilt olika antal sammanblandade bilder. Dessa mönster kunde inte förklaras av någon av de 2 teoretisk ansatserna. Därför föreslås ett nytt sätt att tolka resultaten som inkluderar arbetsminne.

3. Hög arbetsminneskapacitet gav 2 effekter: för det första, igenkänning av fler ansiktsdelar, och för det andra, igenkänning av fler ansiktskonfigurationer. Vid höga arbetsminneskrav så används den första effekten mer på bekostnad av den andra.

Det visade sig också att prestationen för personer med utvecklingsstörning på uppgifter med låga arbetsminneskrav liknade prestationen för åldermatchade kontrollpersoner utan utvecklingsstörning på uppgifter med höga arbetsminneskrav. Detta indikerar att utvecklingsstörning kan ”simuleras” genom högre arbetsminneskrav, åtminstone på denna typ av igenkänningsuppgifter. Resultatens implikationer för vittnespsykologi och användandet av fotografier som kognitivt stöd diskuteras.

Abstract [en]

The general purpose of this thesis was to investigate face recognition for persons with or without learning disability. Three specific research questions were investigated:

1. How does familiarity of faces interact with familiarity of environments in pictures for persons with learning disability?

2. Which, if any, of the 2 theoretical approaches to memory conjunction errors, the binding approach and the dual-processing approach, can explain performance for both persons with and without learning disability?

3. How does working memory relate to performance in memory conjunction error studies?

The results of the 4 papers included in this thesis provided answers to the questions:

1. A person by environment interaction was found and was explained by an absent, present or implausible association between the person and the environment in the picture. These semantic relations determined performance and a “lazy” semantic strategy was suggested.

2. Different group by recognition type interaction patterns, and specifically different amounts of conjunction errors, were found for different degrees of task difficulty. These patterns could neither be explained by the dual processing approach nor the binding approach. Hence, a new frame of interpretation which included working memory was suggested.

3. High working memory capacity was associated with 2 effects: firstly, recognition of more facial features and, secondly, recognition of more facial configurations. At high working memory demands, participants relied on the first effect to a higher degree, at the expense of the other.

It was also found that, in a task with low working memory demands, the performance for persons with learning disability was similar to the performance of age-matched controls with higher working memory demands in the task. This indicates that learning disability, at least in this type of recognition task, can be “simulated” by higher working memory demands in a population without learning disability. This finding is discussed in relation to witness psychology and the use of photographs as cognitive assistance.

Place, publisher, year, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2006. 62 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 347Studies from the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, ISSN 1650-1128 ; 19
Keyword [en]
Face recognition, Memory conjunction error, Binding, Working memory, Learning disability, Witness psychology
Keyword [sv]
Ansiktsigenkänning, Falska minnen, Bindning, Arbetsminne, Utvecklingsstörning, Vittnespsykologi
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-5379 (URN)91-85497-09-6 (ISBN)oai:DiVA.org:liu-5379 (OAI)
Public defence
2006-01-27, Key 1, Keyhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from2006-01-16 Created:2006-01-16 Last updated:2014-09-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. What am I doing in Timbuktu: Person–environment picture recognition for persons with intellectual disability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What am I doing in Timbuktu: Person–environment picture recognition for persons with intellectual disability
2006 (English)In: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, ISSN 0964-2633, Vol. 50, no 2, 127-138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background The aim of this study was to examine the effects of familiarity of depicted persons and environments in recognition of photographs for pupils with different degrees of intellectual disability (ID).

Method Forty-five pupils with ID participated.

Results An interaction effect between the two variables, person and environment, was found in addition to main effects for both the variables. Pictures of the test person himself or herself in familiar environments were easier to recognize than in unfamiliar environments, whereas the opposite was found for pictures of other familiar persons. No interaction effects of degree of ID were found.

Conclusions The interaction pattern is explained in terms of absent, present or implausible semantic associations between the person and the environmental context. The results are discussed in relation to augmentative and alternative communication with photographs.

Keyword
environment recognition, familiarity, intellectual disability, person recognition, picture recognition
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13745 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2788.2005.00766.x (DOI)
Note
The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com: Henrik Danielsson, Jerker Rönnberg and Jan Andersson, What am I doing in Timbuktu: Person–environment picture recognition for persons with intellectual disability, 2006, Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, (50), 2, 127-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2005.00766.x Copyright: Blackwell Publishing Ltd http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/ Available from2009-01-13 Created:2008-12-19 Last updated:2009-02-17Bibliographically approved
2. The face you recognize may not be the one you saw
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The face you recognize may not be the one you saw : Memory conjunction errors in individuals with or without learning disability
Show others...
2006 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 47, no 3, 177-186Artikel i tidskrift (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Memory conjunction errors, that is, when a combination of two previously presented stimuli is erroneously recognized as previously having been seen, were investigated in a face recognition task with drawings and photographs in 23 individuals with learning disability, and 18 chronologically age-matched controls without learning disability. Compared to the controls, individuals with learning disability committed significantly more conjunction errors, feature errors (one old and one new component), but had lower correct recognition, when the results were adjusted for different guessing levels. A dual-processing approach gained more support than a binding approach. However, neither of the approaches could explain all of the results. The results of the learning disability group were only partly related to non-verbal intelligence.

Keyword
Face recognition, memory conjunction errors, learning disability
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13746 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2006.00505.x (DOI)
Note
The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com: Henrik Danielsson, Jerker Rönnberg, Anna Levén, Jan Andersson, Karin Andersson and Björn Lyxell, The face you recognize may not be the one you saw: Memory conjunction errors in individuals with or without learning disability, 2006, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, (47), 3, 177-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2006.00505.x Copyright: Blackwell Publishing Ltd http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/ Available from2009-01-13 Created:2008-12-17 Last updated:2009-02-17Bibliographically approved
3. Verbal overshadowing and memory conjunction errors in persons with learning disability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Verbal overshadowing and memory conjunction errors in persons with learning disability
2006 (English)In: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13747 (URN)
Available from2006-01-16 Created:2006-01-16
4. Memory conjunction errors and working memory capacity in persons with learning disability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Memory conjunction errors and working memory capacity in persons with learning disability
Show others...
2006 (English)In: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13748 (URN)
Available from2006-01-16 Created:2006-01-16

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