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Electrochromic Polymer Devices: Active-Matrix Displays and Switchable Polarizers
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Major efforts have been spent during recent years in worldwide attempts to achieve an electronic paper technology; the common name for novel flexible displays utilizing substrates such as paper, plastics or thin metal sheets. Various kinds of technology are available that potentially will be used for an electronic paper, which differs from each other mainly with respect to the choice of active materials, substrates and manufacturing techniques. There are many applications for electronic paper technology, ranging from high-resolution displays used in electronic books to updateable large-area billboards. The latter suggests a novel electronic display function that could extend the utilization of cellulose-based paper, which is one of the most common materials ever produced by mankind, by using the paper as a thin and flexible carrier. The requirement for fast update speed in such large area applications would probably be a bit more relaxed compared to traditional display technologies, while low-power consumption and bi-stability are among the factors that should be further emphasized, together with the utilization of well-established printing techniques to enable low-cost manufacturing of the displays. The choice of active materials is therefore crucial in order to reach these objectives in reality and this paves the way for printable conjugated polymers with electrochromic properties. Chemical synthesis of these materials during the last decades has resulted in a vast variety of electrochromic polymers with custom-tailored functionality covering a broad range of optical absorption and electrical conductivities.

This thesis review the studies done on the electrochemical switching of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). For this material both the electrical conductivity and the optical absorption is controlled by the oxidation state. Active matrix addressed displays that are printed on flexible substrates have been obtained by arranging electrochemical smart pixels, based on the combination of electrochemical transistors and electrochromic display cells, into cross-point matrices. The resulting polymer-based active-matrix displays are operated at low voltages and the same active material can be used in electrochemical transistors and conducting lines and in electrochromic display cells employing the electronic and the opto-electonic properties of the material, respectively. In addition to this, a switchable optical polarizer is briefly discussed. This is a device utilizing electrochromism of stretch-aligned polyaniline (PANI). The combination of two identical devices in a vertical architecture, orthogonally oriented with respect to each other, results in a filter in which the orientation of the polarized optical absorption is governed by the voltage polarity applied to the device.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap , 2006. , 53 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1237
Keyword [en]
conjugated polymer, PEDOT:PSS, active-matrix, displays, polarizer, polyaniline
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-6102ISBN: 91-85497-35-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-6102DiVA: diva2:21643
Presentation
2006-03-02, TP2, Täppan, LIU Norrköping - Linköping University, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
Report code: LiU-TEK-LIC- 2006:18Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2017-02-03
List of papers
1. Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper
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2002 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 14, no 20, 1460-1464 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An organic electronic paper display technology (see Figure and also inside front cover) is presented. The electrochromic display cell together with the addressing electrochemical transistor form simple smart pixels that are included in matrix displays, which are achieved on coated cellulose-based paper using printing techniques. The ion-electronic technology presented offers an opportunity to extend existing use of ordinary paper.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2002
Keyword
Displays, active matrix, Electronic paper, Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12763 (URN)10.1002/1521-4095(20021016)14:20<1460::AID-ADMA1460>3.0.CO;2-S (DOI)000179034200004 ()
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved
2. Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels
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2003 (English)In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 2003, Vol. 736, D6.6- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12764 (URN)
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-02-03
3. Switchable Optical Polarizer Based on Electrochromism in Stretch-Aligned Polyaniline
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Switchable Optical Polarizer Based on Electrochromism in Stretch-Aligned Polyaniline
2003 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 83, no 7, 1307-1309 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report on the polarizing electrochromic (EC) effect of a conjugated polymer. This has been achieved in a planar flexible electrochemical device cell comprised of a patterned stretch-aligned thin film of polyaniline and an electrolyte, all made on a polyethylene foil substrate. The resulting device exhibits polarized absorption characteristics, of a dichroic ratio of 4, that can be controlled by the voltage applied. Also, thin flexible EC polarizers have been realized by combining two stretch-aligned polyaniline films with orthogonal stretching direction. In the resulting EC polarizer the orientation of the polarized absorption can be switched between two orthogonal directions, depending on the voltage applied.

Keyword
optical polymers, electrochromism, polymer films, optical polarisers
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13799 (URN)10.1063/1.1602556 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13

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Andersson, Peter

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