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Immigrant‐ and non‐immigrant‐specific factors’ association with mental ill health among immigrants in Sweden
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Section of Psychiatry, Neurotec Institution, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2010 (English)In: International Journal of Social Psychiatry, ISSN 0020-7640, E-ISSN 1741-2854, Vol. 56, no 1, 74-93 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: It has often been shown that immigrants are particularly at risk for mental ill health. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of immigrant‐ and non‐immigrant‐specific factors with mental ill health, within a diverse immigrant population.

Method: An extensive questionnaire was sent out to a stratified random sample of three immigrant populations from Finland, Iraq and Iran. The 720 respondents completed a Swedish, Arabic or Persian version of the questionnaire including the WHO (ten) wellbeing index and the HSCL‐25.

Results: The results indicate that mental ill health among immigrants is independently associated with non‐immigrant‐specific factors (i.e. a high number of types of traumatic episodes, divorced or widow/widower, a poor social network, economic insecurity and being a woman) and immigrant‐specific factors (i.e. a low level of socio‐cultural adaptation). These results were obtained regardless of whether mental ill health was operationalised as low subjective wellbeing or a high symptom level of anxiety/depression.

Conclusions: These findings support the notion that mental ill health among immigrants is a multi‐faceted phenomenon that needs to be tackled within a wide range of sectors − e.g. the health care system, the social service sector and of course the political arena.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 56, no 1, 74-93 p.
Keyword [en]
Migration, mental ill health, Sweden, risk factors, living conditions, trauma
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18213DOI: 10.1177/0020764008096163OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-18213DiVA: diva2:216786
Available from: 2009-05-12 Created: 2009-05-12 Last updated: 2011-02-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Migration, Stress and Mental Ill Health: Post-migration Factors and Experiences in the Swedish Context
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Migration, Stress and Mental Ill Health: Post-migration Factors and Experiences in the Swedish Context
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Migration, stress och mental ohälsa : Postmigrationsfaktorer och erfarenheter från den svenska kontexten
Abstract [en]

This predominantly empirical dissertation deals with how socio-economic living conditions and immigrant-specific factors can be linked to immigrants’ mental ill health. It is also explored how cultural representations can affect stress and whether mental ill health is expressed differently among immigrants from Iraq and Iran than among individuals of Nordic origin. Moreover, a conceptual analysis is conducted, where a phenomenological conceptualisation of stress is outlined with a special focus on how this stress approach can be related to culture and migration.

The empirical material consists of eleven in-depth interviews with Iraqi and Iranian immigrant women and two population-based surveys.

The main findings of this thesis suggest as follows: 1) Mental ill health is more common among foreign-born than among native-born Swedes and can to a great extent be attributed to their poorer socio-economic living conditions. 2) Immigrants’ mental health is independently associated with different types of factors, such as traumatic episodes, socio-cultural adaptation level and socioeconomic living conditions. 3) The self-reporting mental health instruments, HSCL-25 and WHO (ten) Wellbeing Index, produce scores that are comparable between Scandinavians and immigrants of Middle Eastern descent. 4) Nonuniversal representations that can be found in Iraq and Iran can amplify, or even be necessary ingredients in certain types of stressful experiences among immigrant women from these countries. 5) The distinctions between universal and non-universal stress, and between immigrant/minority and non-immigrant/nonminority stress appear to be crucial for an adequate comprehension of immigrants’ stressful experiences.

Abstract [sv]

Denna huvudsakligen empiriska avhandling behandlar hur socioekonomiska levnadsvillkor och invandrarspecifika faktorer kan kopplas till invandrares mentala hälsa. I avhandlingen undersöks även hur kulturella representationer kan påverka stressfulla upplevelser och huruvida mental ohälsa uttrycks annorlunda bland invandrare från Irak och Iran än bland nordbor. Vidare genomförs en begreppsanalys av stress skisserad utifrån ett fenomenologiskt perspektiv. Fokus ligger här på hur ett sådant perspektiv på stress kan relateras till kultur och migration.

Det empiriska materialet består av elva djupintervjuer med invandrarkvinnor från Irak och Iran, samt två populationsbaserade enkätundersökningar.

De huvudsakliga fynden i denna avhandling är följande: 1) Mental ohälsa bland utrikesfödda är vanligare än bland svenskfödda och detta kan till stor del ”förklaras” av ogynnsammare socioekonomiska levnadsvillkor. 2) Invandrares mentala ohälsa har ett direkt samband med olika typer av faktorer som traumatiska episoder, sociokulturell anpassningsnivå och socioekonomiska levnadsvillkor. 3) Självskattningsinstrumenten för mental hälsa, HSCL-25 och WHO (ten) Wellbeing Index, producerar värden som är jämförbara mellan nordbor och invandrare från Mellanöstern. 4) Icke-universella representationer som kan påvisas i Irak och Iran kan förstärka, eller till och med vara nödvändiga komponenter för vissa typer av stressfulla upplevelser bland invandrarkvinnor från dessa länder. 5) Distinktionerna mellan universell och icke-universell stress, och mellan invandrar/minoritets och icke-invandrar/icke-minoritets stress, tycks vara centrala för en adekvat förståelse av invandrares stressfulla upplevelser.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009. 81 + papers 1-4 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 480Linköping Dissertations on Health and Society, ISSN 1651-1646 ; 16
Keyword
Cross-cultural equivalence, foreign-born, Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25), Living conditions, mental ill health, migration, phenomenology, population-based, Risk factors, Stress, WHO Wellbeing Index, Cross-cultural equivalence, foreign-born, Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25), Living conditions, mental ill health, migration, phenomenology, population-based, risk factors, stress, WHO Wellbeing Index, invandrare, psykisk hälsa, migration
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18216 (URN)978-91-7393-627-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-05-29, Aulan, Hus 240, Campus US, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-05-12 Created: 2009-05-12 Last updated: 2014-10-01Bibliographically approved

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Tinghög, PetterCarstensen, JohnNordenfelt, Lennart

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