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Translation of the short version of the Perinatal Grief Scale into Swedish
Central Hospital Skövde.
Central Hospital Skövde.
2006 (English)In: Scandinavian journal of caring sciences, ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 20, no 3, 269-273 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Women's emotions and grief after miscarriage are influenced not only by the context in which the miscarriage occurred but also by their past experience, the circumstances around the miscarriage and their future prospects. Their emotions therefore express a specific form of grief. Normally the time needed to work through the loss varies. A number of different scales, measuring women's emotions and grief after miscarriage have been published. One instrument that measures the specific grief, such as the grief after miscarriage is the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) that was designed to measure grief after perinatal loss and has good reliability and validity.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to translate the PGS into Swedish and to use the translation in a small pilot study.

Material and method: The original short version of the PGS was first translated from English into Swedish and then back-translated into English, using different translators. During translation and back-translation, not only the linguistic and grammatical aspects were considered but also cultural differences. The Likert 5-point and a 10-point scale were tested in a pilot study where 12 volunteers anonymously answered the PGS twice. The intra-personal correlations were compared and analysed with weighted κ-coefficient.

Findings: In all, five different versions were tested before the final Swedish version was established. The weighted κ-coefficient for the volunteers was 0.58, which is regarded as representing good reproducibility.

Conclusion: The PGS was translated successfully into Swedish and could be used in a Swedish population. As this work is rather time-consuming we therefore wish to publish the Swedish version so that it may be used by other researchers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 20, no 3, 269-273 p.
Keyword [en]
translation, Perinatal Grief Scale, miscarriage, grief, spontaneous abortion
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13808DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-6712.2006.00404.xOAI: diva2:21694
Available from: 2006-04-03 Created: 2006-04-03 Last updated: 2010-05-17
In thesis
1. Miscarriage: Women’s Experience and its Cumulative Incidence
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Miscarriage: Women’s Experience and its Cumulative Incidence
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Many women experience miscarriage every year. Every fourth woman who has given birth reports that she has previous experience of miscarriage. In a study of all women in the Swedish Medical Birth Register 1983-2003, we found that the number of cases of self reported miscarriage had increased in Sweden during this 21 year period. This increase can be explained by the introduction of sensitive pregnancy tests around 1990, as well as an increase in the mean age of the mothers, by approximately 3 years, during the observation period. The risk of miscarriage is 13% with the first child. With subsequent pregnancies, the risk of miscarriage is 8%, 6% and 4% with the second, third and fourth child, respectively.

Thirteen of these women who had suffered a recent miscarriage were interviewed four months later, and their feelings of guilt and emptiness were explored. Their experience was that they wanted their questions to be answered, and that they wanted others to treat them as the mothers to be that they felt themselves to be. They also experienced the need for time to grieve their loss.

Measurement of grief by means of the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) is used in research but has also been proposed for clinical use. We have translated this psychological instrument to Swedish, back-translated and tested it in a small pilot study. In a randomized controlled study, women with early miscarriage were allocated, either to a structured visit (study group) or a regular visit (control group) to a midwife. The structured visit was conducted according to the Swanson caring theory. We could conclude that the structured visit had no significant effect on grief compared to the regular visit, as measured using the PGS. However, women with the sub-diagnosis missed abortion have significantly more grief four months after early miscarriage, regardless of visit type.

We also performed a content analysis of the tape-recorded structured follow-up visit. The code-key used was Bonanno and Kaltman’s general grief categorization. Women’s expression of grief after miscarriage was found to be very similar to the grief experienced following the death of a relative. Furthermore, the grief was found to be independent of number of children, women’s age, or earlier experience of miscarriage.

Conclusions: Every fourth woman who gives birth reports that she has also experienced early miscarriage. The experience of these women is that they have suffered a substantial loss and their reaction is grief similar to that experienced following the death of a relative.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, 2006
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 939
Miscarriage, Grief, Perinatal Grief Scale in Swedish, Follow-up visit to midwife, Medical Birth Register, Spontaneous abortion
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-6204 (URN)91-85497-76-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-04-07, Berzeliussalen, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
On the day of the public defence of the doctoral thesis the status of article III was In Press and article IV was In Press.Available from: 2006-04-03 Created: 2006-04-03 Last updated: 2009-08-22

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Adolfsson, Ann-SofieLarsson, Per-Göran
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