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European citizens under construction: the Bologna process analysed from a governmentality perspective
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Responsible organisation
2008 (English)In: Educational Philosophy and Theory, ISSN 0013-1857, Vol. 40, no 4, 515-530 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article focuses on problematizing the harmonisation of higher education in Europe today. The overall aim is to analyse the construction of the European citizen and the rationality of governing related to such a construction. The specific focus will be on the rules and standards of reason in higher education reforms which inscribe continuums of values that exclude as they include. Who is and who is not constructed as a European citizen? Documents on the Bologna process produced in Europe and in Sweden are analysed drawing on the Foucauldian notion of governmentality, showing a neoliberal rationality of governing. The European citizen needs to become flexible, autonomous and self-regulating as a way of facing the threats of the constantly changing future. The technique of diversity is a condition of possibility for constructing such a citizen and for harmonising higher education in Europe. Further, the current power relations in the discourse define what is and what is not European, thus constructing 'the other', the one who is excluded.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 40, no 4, 515-530 p.
Keyword [en]
governmentality, Europe and higher education, Bologna process, policy analysis
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13814DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-5812.2007.00362.xOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13814DiVA: diva2:21715
Note
The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com: Andreas Fejes, European citizens under construction – the Bologna process analysed from a governmentality perspective, 2008, Educational Philosophy and Theory, (40), 4, 515-530.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-5812.2007.00362.x. Copyright: Blackwell Publishing www.blackwell-synergy.comAvailable from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2009-04-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Constructing the adult learner: a governmentality analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Constructing the adult learner: a governmentality analysis
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna avhandling är att studera hur den vuxna studerande konstrueras genom olika styrningstekniker inom Vuxenutbildning, Folkbildning och Högre utbildning. Vidare är syftet att analysera vad för styrningsrationalitet som både skapas genom och som skapar dessa praktiker. Det teoretiska ramverket är baserat på Michel Foucaults begrepp styrningsrationalitet (governmentality) och genealogi. Styrningsrationalitet syftar på ett specifikt sätt att se på styrning där fokus är på de tankar/mentaliteter som skapas genom olika diskurser om hur styrning skall utövas. Centrala frågor är: vad är styrningsproblematiken, vad ska styras, hur skall styrning gå till och vad är målet med styrning? Genea-logi syftar på ett specifikt sätt att se på historien. Utgångspunkten är de tankefigurer som är del av dagen diskurser, i denna avhandling diskurserna om vuxenutbildning och livslångt lärande. Vad består dessa diskurser och vad för härkomsthistoria har vissa av dess tankefigurer? Historia ses här som icke-linjär beståendes av brott och oregelbundenheter där syftet inte är att berätta en historia om framsteg där kausala samband är centrala. Istället använder jag genealogi för att destabilisera det vi idag tar för givet gällandes den vuxna studerande. En diskursanalys har genomförts av offentliga utredningar (SOUs och Ds) från 1920-talet fram tills idag som handlar om de praktiker som nämnts ovan. Resul-taten pekar på att en neoliberal styrningsrationalitet dominerar dagens diskurser om vuxenutbildning och livslångt lärande. Enligt texterna måste Sverige och Europa se till att alla dess medborgare konstant lär sig nya saker som ett sätt att möta en osäker och ständigt föränderlig framtid. Därmed skapas den vuxna som ständigt lärandes och som ett kompetent subjekt. Alla medborgare måste bli autonoma, själreglerande människor som konstant lär sig och som konstant gör val i enlighet med sina önskningar. För att konstruera sådana subjekt skapas flera tekniker för styrning såsom vägledning, risk, målstyrning/granskning, bedömning, mångfald m.m.

Abstract [en]

The aim of this dissertation is to study how the adult learner is constructed through dif-ferent techniques of governing in the practice of adult, liberal adult, and higher educa-tion. Further, the aim is to analyse what rationality of governing such governing practices create and are created by. The theoretical framework is based on Michel Foucault’s concepts of governmentality and genealogy. Governmentality refers to a specific way of viewing questions of governance where the focus is on ideas concerning how governing should be practiced. These ideas are constructed through discourse. Central questions are: what is the problematic of government, what is to be governed, how is governing to be practiced and what is the teleos (the goal to be reached) of government? Genealogy refers to at specific way of viewing history. The starting point is the figures of thought that are part of the discourses of today. In this dissertation, these discourses are adult education and lifelong learning. What are these discourses made up of and what is the descent and emergence of some of its figures of thought? Here, history is seen as non-linear and containing ruptures and irregularities. The aim is not to tell the story of how it really was, where causality is central. Instead, genealogy is a way for me to destabilize the taken-for-granted ideas of the present concerning the adult learner. A discourse analysis has been conducted based on official documents produced since the 1920s and up to the present day concerning the practices mentioned above. The results point to neo-liberal governmentality dominating the discourses of adult education and lifelong learning today. According to the texts, Sweden and Europe need to make sure that all their citizens are constantly learning as a way of facing an uncertain and constantly changing future. Thus, the adult learner is constructed as a constantly learning and competent subject. All citizens have to become autonomous, self-regulating humans who are constantly learning and who constantly make choices according to their inner desires. Several techniques of governing such as guidance, risk, auditing, assessment, diversity, etc., are constructed as a way of constructing such a subject.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för beteendevetenskap, 2006
Series
Linköping Studies in Education and Psychology, ISSN 1102-7517 ; 106
Keyword
lifelong learning, adult education, adult learner, governmentality, genealogy, policy analysis, livslångt lärande, vuxenutbildning, den vuxna studerande, styrningsrationalitet, governmentality, genealogi, policy analys
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-6231 (URN)91-85497-47-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-05-05, Eklundska salen, Hus I, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
On the day of the public defence date of the doctoral thesis the status of article III was: Accepted; The status of article IV was: Submitted.Available from: 2006-04-05 Created: 2006-04-05 Last updated: 2009-02-19

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