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Chloroform in runoff water: a two-year study in a small catchment in southeast Sweden
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6471-143X
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of British Columbia, Aquatic Ecosystem Research Laboratory, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
2007 (English)In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 82, no 2, 139-151 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chloroform concentrations were observed and input and output fluxes estimated over a 2-yr period in a small coniferous catchment (0.22 km2) in southeast Sweden. Water discharge was measured daily, and runoff water was sampled bi-weekly for chloroform analysis. An approximate chloroform budget was calculated, which indicated that the annual output of 6 μg m−2 yr−1 was approximately six times higher than the input, inferring an internal source of chloroform in the catchment. To the best of our knowledge, neither flux estimates nor mass balances have previously been made for chloroform on a catchment scale, nor have data regarding natural runoff variation with time been gathered. Concentrations of chloroform in runoff were found to be generally high during wet periods, such as spring, but also peaked during summer rain events. The observed pattern suggests that chloroform is formed in surface soil layers and transported to the outlet under high-flow conditions and during dry-period rain events; it is lost through degradation or evaporation during drier periods due to longer soil water residence times. The data suggest that the variation among replicates increases with concentration; this emphasizes the need to know what the degree of on-site variation is, so one can collect a sufficient number of replicates to permit detection of spatial or temporal changes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 82, no 2, 139-151 p.
Keyword [en]
Biogeochemistry, Catchment, Chloroform, Water, VOCl
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13821DOI: 10.1007/s10533-006-9059-xOAI: diva2:21755
Available from: 2006-04-21 Created: 2006-04-21 Last updated: 2013-12-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Chlorine Transport in a Small Catchment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chlorine Transport in a Small Catchment
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

De senaste decenniernas forskning har påvisat att en omfattande bildning och nedbrytning av klororganiska föreningar sker i mark. Bildning av sådana föreningar sker genom att klorid binds in i organiskt material. Denna naturliga bildning har rönt uppmärksamhet dels för att många klorerade ämnen är giftiga och dels för man tidigare trott att alla klororganiska ämnen uteslutande kommer från mänsklig verksamhet. Huvudmålet för föreliggande avhandling var att (i) uppskatta transporten av klorerade föreningar i nederbörd och avrinningsvatten, (ii) diskutera de klorerade föreningarnas ursprung med utgångspunkt från hur deras förekomst varierar i avrinningsvatten, (iii) undersöka hur transporten av klorid (salt) påverkas av olika faktorer och (iv) studera hur frisättningen av flyktiga klorerade föreningar från mark påverkas av kväve.

Avhandlingen bygger på en klorbudget som konstruerats utifrån fältstudier som genomförts i ett litet skogsbeklätt avrinningsområde i sydöstra Sverige. Dessutom har laboratoriestudier genomförts med jord som inhämtats från samma område. Resultaten visar att lagret av klor i marken är betydligt större än flödena och att det främst består av organiska ämnen medan flödet domineras av klorid (salt). Detta tyder på att en stor del av kloriden deltar i en biogeokemisk cykel vilket strider mot gängse uppfattning att klorid rör sig opåverkat genom mark. Hypotesen är att de översta marklagren fungerar som en sänka för klorid genom att omvandlas till organiskt bundet klor. De djupare jordlagren fungerar däremot som en kloridkälla genom att det klorerade organiska materialet transporterats med regnvatten från de ytligare till de djupare liggande lagren för att så småningom brytas ner, varvid klorid frisätts. Ovan beskrivna hypotes stöds av laboratoriestudierna där man kunnat notera att det sker såväl en fastläggning som en frisättning av klorid i mark. Resultaten från avhandlingen tillsammans med resultat från tidigare studier tyder på att en stor del av den klorid som finns i avrinningsvatten kommer från förmultnande organiskt material och att klorid med andra ord inte följer regnvattnets väg genom marken, vilket man tidigare trott. Studierna tyder alltså på att klorid till viss del ”gör en omväg” med en tidsfördröjning på troligen åtskilliga upp till hundratals år. Vidare tyder studierna på att flyktiga klorerade föreningar som kloroform och tetraklormetan bildas i mark och att tillsats av kväve orsakar en minskning av kloroform och en ökning av tetraklormetan.

Avhandlingen visar tydligt att det är nödvändigt att rikta uppmärksamhet mot klors biogeokemi i mark och då inte minst mot de processer som påverkar transporten av klor från de övre marklagren till grundvatten och ytvatten om vi ska öka förståelsen av hur klorerade ämnen som tillförts naturen genom mänskliga aktiviteter beter sig.

Abstract [en]

It is generally known that chlorine compounds are ubiquitous in the environment. In recent years, researchers have concluded that chlorine is part of a biogeochemical cycle in soil involving an interaction between chloride (Clin) and organic-matter-bound chlorine (Clorg). Even though there is indisputable evidence that Clorg is formed naturally, there are actually few simultaneous field measurements of Clorg and Clin. Previously stipulated conclusions with respect to underlying processes and transport estimates have thus been deduced from rather few concentration measurements. It is well known that the chemical composition in soil and runoff water varies widely over time and in space. The main objective of the thesis is to investigate the on-site variation of Clin, Clorg and VOCls in runoff water in order to (i) construct a chlorine budget on a catchment scale to visualize the relative contribution of Clin, Clorg, and VOCls; (ii) more reliably estimate how and why the concentrations of Clin, Clorg, and VOCls in runoff water vary; and (iii) analyze the influence of various environmental variables on the transport.

The present thesis highlights the on-site variation and fluxes of Clin, Clorg, and VOCls in a small forested catchment in southeast Sweden. Field flux data collected during a twoyear period and a constructed overall chlorine budget were evaluated. The results show that the storage is dominated by Clorg whereas the transport is dominated by Clin and that the storage is far much larger than the transport. Still, input and output is nearly in balance for all investigated chlorine species. It is interesting to note that these observations resemble observations made for carbon, nitrogen and sulphur; i.e. a large storage, small transport, complex biogeochemical cycling processes at hand but still close to steady state conditions with respect to output-input balances. It appears as if topsoil acts as a sink for Clin, while deeper soil acts as a source of Clin. In addition, the results of the thesis suggest that on-site variation depend on seasonal variations. These variations are to some extent caused by water discharge, but also by water residence time, internal chlorination/dechlorination of organic matter, and different soil water origins. Furthermore, both a net retention and a net release of Clin were observed in laboratory studies. The study indicates that simultaneous retention and release of Clin takes place in soil, which probably has an impact on the Clin import and export fluxes. Finally, the results show for the first time that tetrachloromethane can be emitted from laboratory incubated soil, and that soil nitrogen concentrations has quite different effects on the emission rates of chloroform and tetrachloromethane.

The results of the thesis, considered together with results of previous research, suggest that the turnover of chlorine in soils is extensive and potentially important for chlorine cycling in general, which must be taken into account if one wishes to increase the understanding of the cycling of anthropogenic chlorine compounds in the environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2006. 56 + papers 1-5 p.
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 352
catchment, chloride, chlorine, chloroform, organic chlorine, runoff water, soil, VOCls, avrinningsområde, avrinningsvatten, flyktiga klorerade föreningar klor, klorid, kloroform, organiskt klor, mark
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-6316 (URN)91-85523-85-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-05-12, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus, Norrköping, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)

On the day of the public defence the status of article IV was: Accepted.

Available from: 2006-04-21 Created: 2006-04-21 Last updated: 2014-09-05Bibliographically approved

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