Chloride retention and release in a boreal forest soil: effects of soil water residence time and nitrogen and chloride loads
2006 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 40, no 9, 2977-2982 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The common assumption that chloride (Cl-) is conservative in soils and can be used as a groundwater tracer is currently being questioned, and an increasing number of studies indicate that Cl- can be retained in soils. We performed lysimeter experiments with soil from a coniferous forest in southeast Sweden to determine whether pore water residence time and nitrogen and Cl- loads affected Cl- retention. Over the first 42 days there was a net retention of Cl- with retention rates averaging 3.1 mg Cl- m-2 d-1 (68% of the added Cl- retained over 42 days). Thereafter, a net release of Cl- at similar rates was observed for the remaining experimental period (85 d). Longer soil water residence time and higher Cl- load gave higher initial retention and subsequent release rates than shorter residence time and lower Cl- load did. Nitrogen load did not affect Cl transformation rates. This study indicates that simultaneous retention and release of Cl- can occur in soils, and that rates may be considerable relative to the load. The retention of Cl- observed was probably due to chlorination of soil organic matter or ion exchange. The cause of the shift between net retention and net release is unclear, but we hypothesize that the presence of O2 or the presence of microbially available organic matter regulates Cl- retention and release rates.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 40, no 9, 2977-2982 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13822DOI: 10.1021/es0523237OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13822DiVA: diva2:21756