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Semantic Framing of Speech: Emotional and Topical Cues in Perception of Poorly Specified Speech
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The general aim of this thesis was to test the effects of paralinguistic (emotional) and prior contextual (topical) cues on perception of poorly specified visual, auditory, and audiovisual speech. The specific purposes were to (1) examine if facially displayed emotions can facilitate speechreading performance; (2) to study the mechanism for such facilitation; (3) to map information-processing factors that are involved in processing of poorly specified speech; and (4) to present a comprehensive conceptual framework for speech perception, with specification of the signal being considered. Experi¬mental and correlational designs were used, and 399 normal-hearing adults participated in seven experiments. The main conclusions are summarised as follows. (a) Speechreading can be facilitated by paralinguistic information as constituted by facial displayed emotions. (b) The facilitatory effect of emitted emotional cues is mediated by their degree of specification in transmission and ambiguity as percepts; and by how distinct the perceived emotions combined with topical cues are as cues for lexical access. (c) The facially displayed emotions affect speech perception by conveying semantic cues; no effect via enhanced articulatory distinctiveness, nor of emotion-related state in the perceiver is needed for facilitation. (d) The combined findings suggest that emotional and topical cues provide constraints for activation spreading in the lexicon. (e) Both bottom-up and top-down factors are associated with perception of poorly specified speech, indicating that variation in information-processing abilities is a crucial factor for perception if there is paucity in sensory input. A conceptual framework for speech perception, comprising specification of the linguistic and paralinguistic information, as well as distinctiveness of primes, is presented. Generalisations of the findings to other forms of paralanguage and language processing are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2003. , 74 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Education and Psychology, ISSN 1102-7517 ; 94
Keyword [en]
Speech perception, speechreading, facial expressions, priming, phonemes, semantics, lipreading, auditory perception, cognition, paralinguistics, emotional content
Keyword [sv]
Läppavläsning
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-6344ISBN: 91-7373-754-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-6344DiVA: diva2:21777
Public defence
2003-10-31, Eklundska salen, Hus Ingvar, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-05-03 Created: 2006-05-03 Last updated: 2014-09-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Facial expressions and speechreading performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Facial expressions and speechreading performance
1996 (English)In: Scandinavian Audiology, ISSN 0105-0397, Vol. 25, no 2, 97-102 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study, the role of facial expressions in visual speechreading (lipreading) was examined. Speechreading was assessed by three different tests: sentence-based speechreading, word-decoding, and word discrimination. Twenty-seven individuals participated as subjects in the study. The results revealed that no general improvement as a function of expression was obtained across all tests. Nevertheless, skilled speechreaders could significantly improve their performance as a function of emotional expression in the word-decoding and word-discrimination conditions. Furthermore, a correlational analysis indicated that there was a significant relationship between the subjects' rating of confidence regarding their responses to each test-item and performance on speechreading tests where lexical analysis is a necessary task-demand. The results are discussed with respect to how information from facial expressions is integrated with the information given by the lip movements in visual speechreading, and also with respect to general models of face-processing (i.e., Bruce ↦ Young. 1986; Young ↦ Bruce. 1991).

Keyword
Facial expressions, skill, speechreading
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13824 (URN)10.3109/01050399609047990 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-05-03 Created: 2006-05-03 Last updated: 2009-08-19
2. Speech-reading: Cognitive predictors and displayed emotion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speech-reading: Cognitive predictors and displayed emotion
1999 (English)In: Scandinavian Audiology, ISSN 0105-0397, Vol. 28, no 4, 211-217 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study had three aims: to examine the effects of displayed emotion and message length on speech-reading performance, and how measures of working memory (cf. Baddeley 1986) and verbal information processing speed relate to speech-reading performance. Words and sentences with either positive or negative meaning were used in a word decoding and a sentence-based speech-reading test. A total of 48 normal-hearing subjects participated. The results revealed general effects of displayed emotion, message meaning and message length and no effect of displayed emotion vs message length. Furthermore, working memory but not verbal information processing speed nor accuracy predicted speech-reading performance. The results were discussed with respect to a model of face-processing (Bruce & Young 1986) and with respect to clinical implications.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13825 (URN)10.1080/010503999424644 (DOI)
Note
The Scandinavian Audiology has now merged with International Journal of Audiology(as from 2002).Available from: 2006-05-03 Created: 2006-05-03 Last updated: 2014-11-28
3. Speech-reading of synthetic and natural faces: Contextual cueing and mode of presentation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speech-reading of synthetic and natural faces: Contextual cueing and mode of presentation
2001 (English)In: Scandinavian Audiology, ISSN 0105-0397, Vol. 30, no 2, 89-94 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A natural and a synthetic face were compared with regard to speechreading performance, with a visual and an audio-visual condition, and with three levels of contextual cueing in an experiment with 90 normal-hearing subjects. Auditory presentation (speech in noise) served as a control condition. The results showed main effects for type of face, presentation mode and contextual cueing, and also an interaction between presentation mode and type of face, such that performance was superior for the natural compared with the synthetic face, and especially in the audio-visual mode. Audiovisual speech-reading was more accurate than visual and auditory presentation and contextual cueing improved performance overall. It is suggested that a synthetic face can be a valuable and useful support if proper cueing and an auditory signal are provided, but it is outperformed by a natural face with regard to complementarity to an underspecified auditory speech signal.

Keyword
DEAF -- Means of communication, SPEECH perception, HEARING, AUDITORY perception, VISUAL perception
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13826 (URN)10.1080/010503901300112194 (DOI)
Note
Scandinavian Audiolog has now merged with International Journal of Audiology (as from 2002). Available from: 2006-05-03 Created: 2006-05-03 Last updated: 2009-08-19
4. Effects of displayed emotion on attitude and impression formation in visual speech-reading
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of displayed emotion on attitude and impression formation in visual speech-reading
2002 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 43, no 3, 261-268 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In two experiments on visual speech–reading, with a total of 132 normal–hearing participants, the effects of displayed emotion and task specificity on speech–reading performance, on attitude toward the task and on person impression were explored, as well as associations between speech–reading performance, attitude, and person impression. The results show that displayed emotion increased speech–reading performance and attitude ratings, and that the actor was perceived as more extraverted both when displaying emotions, and when his speech was high in specificity. The main conclusion was that displayed emotion enhances speech–reading performance by providing information that is useful to the speech–reader.

Keyword
speech reading, lipreading, speech-reading, lip-reading, attitude, motivation, impression formation, person impression, cognition, perception, experiment, performance, valence, emotion
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13827 (URN)10.1111/1467-9450.00294 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-05-03 Created: 2006-05-03 Last updated: 2009-05-25
5. Effects of emotional and scriptural cues in auditory and visual speech perception
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of emotional and scriptural cues in auditory and visual speech perception
Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13828 (URN)
Available from: 2006-05-03 Created: 2006-05-03 Last updated: 2010-01-13

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Lidestam, Björn

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