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Municipal Energy Planning and Development of Local Energy Systems
Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2003 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 76, no 1-3, 179-187 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over the past three decades, Swedish energy policy has evolved in three major stages—oil reduction, phase-out of nuclear energy, renewable energy—each with a different focus. Since 1977, Swedish law has required municipalities to develop an energy plan that addresses the supply, distribution, and use of energy. Whether such plans have contributed to the development of local energy-systems has been a subject for debate. This paper is based on a study of 12 municipal energy-plans that attempted to control and develop local energy-systems in southern Sweden. The analysis examines how municipalities promote oil reduction, efficient energy use, and the use of renewable energy. The plans varied in planning processes, contents, and level of ambition. The results of the study show that the contents of the plans follow the national energy-policies with respect to reduction of oil use, improved energy efficiency, and increased use of renewable energy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier , 2003. Vol. 76, no 1-3, 179-187 p.
Keyword [en]
Energy-planning, National energy, Municipal energy, Environmental impact, Strategies
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13852DOI: 10.1016/S0306-2619(03)00062-XOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13852DiVA: diva2:21870
Available from: 2006-05-30 Created: 2006-05-30 Last updated: 2009-06-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Municipal Energy Planning: Scope and Method Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Municipal Energy Planning: Scope and Method Development
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Swedish municipalities are required to produce a municipal energy plan for their energy supply and use. Whether energy planning is suitable to manage local energy systems, however, is subject to debate. This thesis maps municipal energy planning: the scopes of energy plans and whether goals stated in energy plans are fulfilled. It also presents a pilot project with the implementation of an energy planning process where four different decision-making tools were applied: a Citizen’s panel, scenario techniques and quantitative and qualitative environmental assessments. The results from the mapping of energy planning and the experiences from the pilot project are then the bases for a discussion about the effectiveness of energy planning.

The thesis is based on six papers; five scientific papers and one working paper. The first three papers contribute to mapping municipal energy planning in terms of expressed volition (goals, measures and strategies in the energy plans), whether goals are fulfilled and the extent of environmental analyses and assessments in the plans. The three subsequent papers present the implementation and evaluations of the energy planning process in the pilot project.

The scopes of the studied energy plans have varied over time and have been adaptive to external factors such as contemporary energy policies and international trends. Environmental analyses and assessments were more commonly occurring in the energy plans adopted between 2006 and 2008 compared to those adopted between 1995 and 1998. The environmental analyses and assessments were however less comprehensive in the newer energy plans. Most positive development, in terms of fulfilled goals, took place for issues within the power of the local authority, for example district heating expansion and energy efficiency measures in public buildings. Experiences from the pilot project showed that decision-making tools can contribute to a broader scope of energy planning, more comprehensive environmental assessments and legitimacy.

Based on the research findings possibilities for more effective energy planning are discussed. Effectiveness is discussed in terms of scope and legitimacy and how a broad scope and legitimacy are affected by the use of decision-making tools. It is concluded that energy planning has potential for being an effective tool for strategic energy work at the local level. The use of decision-making tools can also contribute to learning as well as legitimacy to energy planning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009. 72 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1234
Keyword
Energy planning, energy systems, environmental assessment, decision-making, participation
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16398 (URN)978-91-7393-716-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-02-13, A2, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-03-06 Created: 2009-01-22 Last updated: 2010-06-16Bibliographically approved
2. Plan and Reality: Municipal Energy Plans and Development of Local Energy Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plan and Reality: Municipal Energy Plans and Development of Local Energy Systems
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Enligt lagen om kommunal energiplanering ska varje svensk kommun ha en energiplan för tillförsel för tillförsel och användning av energi. Huruvida energiplanering är ett bra sätt att styra det kommunala energisystemet är dock omdebatterat. Denna avhandling studerar innehåll i, och implementering av, ett antal svenska kommunala energiplaner. Energiplanernas effektivitet studeras på två nivåer: uppfyllelse av mål och visioner i planerna, samt hur detta bidrar till att uppfylla de nationella energipolitiska målen.

Forskningen baseras på tre studier: en studie av innehållet i tolv energiplaner från Östergötland, en studie av mål och visioner i sju energiplaner och hur energisystem utvecklats efter energiplanerna antagits, samt en fallstudie av Kungälvs kommun där mål och måluppfyllelse studerats mer utförligt. Innehåll och målformuleringar i energiplanerna har analyserats med avseende på miljö, effektiv energianvändning och systemnivå. Mål och måluppfyllelse har även analyserats med avseende på aktörer.

Resultaten visar på att de studerade energiplanerna har smal systemsyn och att de miljöanalyser som finns i planerna är undermåliga. Energiplaneringen har varit effektiv till viss del. Bäst måluppfyllelse har kommunerna när det gäller mål på en relativt låg systemnivå och när det är kommunen själv som äger frågan, exempelvis fjärrvärmeutbyggnad och energieffektivisering av kommunens lokaler. När det gäller utvecklingens bidrag till de nationella energipolitiska målen är resultaten varierande: användning av biobränslen har ökat avsevärt, medan självförsörjningsgraden på el bara ökat något. Bäst är utvecklingen när det gäller minskade koldioxidutsläpp.

Baserat på bristerna som upptäckts i de studerade energiplanerna och dess implementering förs en diskussion kring möjligheter att öka energiplaneringens effektivitet och vidga systemsynen. Förbättringar som diskuteras är att stärka kopplingen till fysisk planering, och att inkludera medborgarmedverkan och miljöbedömningar. Om kopplingen till energifrågor stärks i översiktlig planering och om även privata aktörer kommer till tals under planeringsprocessen, skulle detta kunna underlätta implementering av energiplanerna. Miljöbedömningar i sin tur kan bidra med en vidare systemsyn om mer relevanta mål i planerna. Slutligen föreslås att ramverket för miljöbedömning av planer och program (2001/42/EC) kan användas vid energiplanering eftersom det framhåller vikten av breda analyser, samråd med privata aktörer och miljöbedömningar.

Abstract [en]

Swedish municipalities are required to produce a municipal energy plan for energy supply and use. Whether energy planning is suitable to manage local energy systems, however, is subject to debate. This thesis explores municipal energy planning and development of local energy systems after energy plans were adopted to examine whether energy planning is effective. The effectiveness of energy planning is studied on two levels: in terms of whether goals in energy plans were implemented, and whether energy planning contributes to fulfilling national energy policy goals.

The research is based on three studies. In the first, the scope of twelve municipal energy plans from a Swedish region was assessed. In the second study, goals and visions in seven energy plans were analysed and compared to the development of the local energy systems. The third case involved Kungälv municipality, where the implementation of goals in its energy plan was studied more thoroughly. Scopes and goals in the energy plans were analysed from three perspectives: the environment, energy efficiency and the systems level. Goals and development were also analysed from an actor’s perspective.

The results show that the scopes of the studied energy plans have narrow systems boundaries, and that the environmental analyses presented in the plans are very basic. Energy planning was found to have been fairly effective in terms of fulfilment of goals in energy plans. Most positive developments are for goals on a relatively low systems level when the local authority owns the issue, for example district heating expansion and energy efficiency measures in public buildings. When it comes to contributing to national energy policy goals, results vary; use of biomass has increased, but selfsufficiency in electricity supply has increased only slightly. The most favourable development when it comes to energy-related emissions is the reduction of carbon dioxide.

Based on shortcomings identified in the studied energy plans and implementation, possibilities to increase the effectiveness and widen the scope of energy planning are discussed. Improvements are discussed in terms of urban planning as well as participative planning, and with respect to the environmental assessment of plans. If energy issues are included in urban planning and a participatory planning approach is used, this could facilitate the implementation of energy plans. Including environmental assessment could facilitate wide scopes and more relevant goals. It is also proposed that the EU framework for environmental assessment of plans and programmes (2001/42/EC) can be used for energy planning, since it includes a comprehensive approach, public participation, and environmental assessment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2006. 91 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1250
Series
Keyword
municipal energy planning, energy management, energy systems, systems, renewable energy, energy conservation, municipality, local authority
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-6559 (URN)LIU-TEK-LIC-2006:31 (Local ID)91-85523-66-6 (ISBN)LIU-TEK-LIC-2006:31 (Archive number)LIU-TEK-LIC-2006:31 (OAI)
Presentation
2006-06-09, MASS, A-Huset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-05-30 Created: 2006-05-30 Last updated: 2009-06-04Bibliographically approved

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Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, JennyMårtensson, Anders

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