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Habitat requirements and preservation of the beetle assemblages associated with hollow oaks
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the most endangered assemblages of species in Europe is saproxylic beetles associated with old trees. To be able to conserve these species there is a need of developing methods to survey the fauna and to evaluate the conservation value of different oak habitats, develop instruments for landscape planning and detailed knowledge of species habitat requirements. The results are based on a data set from window and pit-fall trapping of saproxylic beetles at 94 different sites spread over four regions in southern Sweden. Additionally, 48 wooden boxes with artificial wood mould, consisting mainly of oak saw dust and oak leaves and some varying additional substrates, were studied for three years at three of the sites and their vicinities.

A comparison of three methods to assess species richness and composition of the saproxylic beetle fauna in standing hollow oaks showed that all trapping methods were effective in detecting species, but as they partially target different assemblages of species it is profitable to combine the methods. Window traps gave most species but wood mould sampling is the cheapest method to sample the fauna. It was possible to predict the conservation value individual oak patches with sets of indicator species of saproxylic beetles with regard to number of species or presence of conservation priority species. Indicator sets of species effectively caught with pitfall traps gave the overall best predictions. When comparing different treatment of species indata, the explanatory power of predictions was strongest for presence/absence data. Predictions of species number and an index worked well within the same regions but gave varied result for three other regions, which shows that transferability of indicators between regions may be doubtful. Species richness was greatest in stands with large, free-standing trees. Among individual trees, large girth as well as low canopy cover, increased frequency of occurrence for several species. Forest regrowth was found to be detrimental for many beetle species. An evaluation of to what extent artificial habitats, mimicking the conditions in hollow oaks, can be exploited by saproxylic beetles showed that nearly 70% of the species found in hollow oaks was found in artificial wood mould boxes. A dead hen added to the artificial wood mould gave a higher number of beetle specimens. The number of species associated with tree hollows in oak decreased with distance from sites with hollow oaks.

An analysis of species assemblages at 38 sites and positions of 33 000 large/hollow oaks showed that different beetle species dependent on a single substrate, hollow oaks, responded to different scales. The total species richness responded to a scale of 859 m and the characteristic scale of response for single species varied between 52 m and 5284 m. Several species were sensitive both to smaller and larger scales.

As most sites with endangered beetles living in old oaks are small and isolated, ongoing management directed to keep old oaks free standing and sun exposed and to ensure the recruitment of young oaks, and the restoration of abandoned pasture woodlands should have a high priority in nature conservation. Artificial habitats may in critical areas be created to fill gaps in old oak habitat for parts of the species assemblage. To preserve the saproxylic beetle fauna dependent on old oaks, it is important to retain and create suitable habitats both in local stands and at the landscape level, from single hectares up to hundreds of hectares depending on the species. In some landscape, creations of new oak areas in the fragmented landscape are crucial for long-term survival of sensitive species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2009. , 43 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1246
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18499ISBN: 978-91-7393-679-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-18499DiVA: diva2:220009
Public defence
2009-06-05, Planck, fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-05-29 Created: 2009-05-29 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The influence of forest regrowth, original canopy cover and tree size on saproxylic beetles associated with old oaks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of forest regrowth, original canopy cover and tree size on saproxylic beetles associated with old oaks
2000 (English)In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, Vol. 95, no 1, 85-94 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abandoned management has caused many sites with free-standing, large oaks (Quercus robur) to become more shaded. This study shows how forest regrowth affects beetle species associated with old oaks in south-eastern Sweden. Beetles were trapped by pitfall traps placed in hollows and window traps placed near hollows in oak trunks in pasture woodlands. We assessed the influence of forest regrowth, tree size and original canopy cover on the species richness of saproxylic beetles (a total of 120 species identified) and the occurrence of 68 saproxylic beetle species in particular. Species richness was greatest in stands with large, free-standing trees. Large girth as well as low canopy cover increased frequency of occurrence for several species. Forest regrowth was found to be detrimental for many beetle species. As most localities with endangered beetles living in old oaks are small and isolated, ongoing management and the restoration of abandoned pasture woodlands should have a high priority in nature conservation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2000
Keyword
Saproxylic beetles, Quercus robur, Pasture woodland, Forest regrowth, Tree hollow, Microclimate
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18494 (URN)10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00007-0 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-05-29 Created: 2009-05-29 Last updated: 2009-05-29Bibliographically approved
2. A comparison of three methods to survey saproxylic beetles in hollow oaks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparison of three methods to survey saproxylic beetles in hollow oaks
2002 (English)In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, Vol. 11, no 10, 1759-1771 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One of the most endangered assemblages of species in Europe is insectsassociated with old trees. For that reason there is a need of developing methodsto survey this fauna. This study aims at comparing three methods – windowtrapping, pitfall trapping and wood mould sampling – to assess speciesrichness and composition of the saproxylic beetle fauna in living, hollow oaks.We have used these methods at the same site, and to a large extent in the sametrees. Useful information was obtained from all methods, but they partiallytarget different assemblages of species. Window trapping collected the highestnumber of species. Pitfall trapping collected beetles associated with treehollows which rarely are collected by window traps and therefore it isprofitable to combine these two methods. As wood mould sampling is the cheapestmethod to use, indicator species should preferably be chosen among specieswhich are efficiently collected with this method.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Link, 2002
Keyword
Pitfall traps, Saproxylic beetles, Trapping efficiency, Tree hollows, Window traps
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18495 (URN)10.1023/A:1020343030085 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-05-29 Created: 2009-05-29 Last updated: 2009-05-29Bibliographically approved
3. An indicator system for identification of sites of high conservation value for saproxylic oak (Quercus spp.) beetles in southern Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An indicator system for identification of sites of high conservation value for saproxylic oak (Quercus spp.) beetles in southern Sweden
2009 (English)In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, Vol. 13, no 4, 399-412 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The saproxylic beetle fauna on old oaks was sampled in four regions of southern Sweden using two methods: window and pitfall trapping. The aim was to test a way of finding indicator species which can be used to identify sites with high species number or that scored high on a conservation priority species index, based on occurrence of red-listed species. From 92 sites surveyed, in total 164 species of saproxylic beetles were identified. Different sets of indicator species were selected based upon 22 sites from a centrally located region. Predictions of species number and the index for 30 other sites from the same province were made. The correlation between observed and predicted species number and the index increased with increasing number of indicators. When comparing different treatment of species indata, the explanatory power of predictions was strongest for presence/absence data. Indicator sets of species effectively caught with pitfall traps gave overall the best predictions of both species number and the index. Predictions of species number and the index worked well within the same regions but gave varied result for the three other regions which shows that transferability of indicators between regions may be doubtful.

Keyword
Coleoptera - Beetles - Saproxylic, Quercus robur, Indicator, Species number, Prediction, Transferability
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18496 (URN)10.1007/s10841-008-9187-9 (DOI)
Note
The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com: Nicklas Jansson, Karl-Olof Bergman, Mats Jonsell and Per Milberg, An indicator system for identification of sites of high conservation value for saproxylic oak (Quercus spp.) beetles in southern Sweden, 2009, Journal of Insect Conservation, (13), 4, 399-412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10841-008-9187-9 Copyright: Springer Science Business Media http://www.springerlink.com/ Available from: 2009-05-29 Created: 2009-05-29 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
4. Boxes mimicking tree hollows can help conservation of saproxylic beetles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Boxes mimicking tree hollows can help conservation of saproxylic beetles
2009 (English)In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Old hollow trees have declined in Europe and many saproxylic (i.e. wood-dwelling) invertebrates living on them are threatened. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent artificial habitats can be exploited by saproxylic beetles. To mimic the conditions in tree hollows, we constructed wooden boxes filled with different combinations of substrates like oak saw dust, oak leaves, dead hen (Gallus domesticus), chicken dung, lucerne flour or potatoes and placed them on tree trunks. To investigate the importance of distance from dispersal sources, we placed boxes at different distances (0 to 1800 m) from three species-rich sites with high densities of hollow oaks. Over three years, 3423 specimens of 105 saproxylic beetle species were caught in 47 boxes. Among beetles found in hollow oaks that were either tree-hollow species, nest species, or wood rot species, 70 % were also found in the boxes. A dead hen added to the artificial wood mould gave a higher number of beetle specimens. The number of species associated with tree hollows in oak decreased with distance from sites with hollow oaks. In conclusion, the prospects for using artificial environments for boosting substrate availability, or to fill spatial and temporal gaps therein, for saproxylic beetles are good.

Keyword
Artificial habitat, hollow oak, Quercus, saproxylic beetles, Sweden, wood mould boxes
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18497 (URN)10.1007/s10531-009-9687-2 (DOI)
Note
The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com: Nicklas Jansson, Thomas Ranius, Anna Larsson and Per Milberg, Boxes mimicking tree hollows can help conservation of saproxylic beetles, 2009, Biodiversity and Conservation. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-009-9687-2 Copyright: Springer Science Business Media http://www.springerlink.com/ Available from: 2009-05-29 Created: 2009-05-29 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
5. Importance of scale and density of hollow oaks for saproxylic oak beetles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Importance of scale and density of hollow oaks for saproxylic oak beetles
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the key aspects in conservation management and in understanding species distributions is how they respond to habitat factors at different scales. Old-growth deciduous forests is severely fragmented in Europe and the most important substrates for saproxylic beetles in this habitat is hollow veteran trees. In this study, we used an extensive field survey data, mapping all large and/or hollow oaks (ca 33,000) in an area of 10,000 km² in south-eastern Sweden. With beetle occurrence data from 38 sites we did a multi-scale analysis of how different beetle species responded to oak density. A total of 16 species responded significant to substrate density from 52 m to 5200 m showing that conclusions made from data measured on a single scale may lead to wrong conclusions. We hypothesized that larger species should respond to larger scales and that both local and landscape scales should be important for several species. We found no evidence for that larger species responded to substrate density at larger scales. However, several species as e.g. Tenebrio opacus, responded to oak density at both small a scale (92 m) and a large scale (859 m). The reason for the importance of two scales is probably that several processes are acting on different time scales and therefore over different spatial scales. Individual oaks may act as static patches in the short term and the small-scale response may reflect the scale of metapopulation dynamics. However, as changes in the densities of old oaks over larger landscapes over several centuries occurs, long-term substrate dynamics are expected to act over larger areas, reflecting the larger scale. The variation in species response to substrate density at different scales means that habitat loss and fragmentation will have different effects upon different species.

Keyword
Saproxylic beetles, old oaks, Quercus, conservation, management, multi-scale
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18498 (URN)
Available from: 2009-05-29 Created: 2009-05-29 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved

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  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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