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Situated cognition in clinical visualization: the role of transparency in GammaKnife neurosurgery planning.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Ball State University.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. (Landstinget i Östergötland; Centre for Public Health Sciences; Centre for Public Health Sciences; Folkhälsovetenskapligt centrum; Folkhälsovetenskapligt centrum)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6049-5402
2009 (English)In: Artificial intelligence in medicine, ISSN 1873-2860, Vol. 46, no 2, 111-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how the clinical use of visualization technology can be advanced by the application of a situated cognition perspective. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The data were collected in the GammaKnife radiosurgery setting and analyzed using qualitative methods. Observations and in-depth interviews with neurosurgeons and physicists were performed at three clinics using the Leksell GammaKnife. RESULT: The users' ability to perform cognitive tasks was found to be reduced each time visualizations incongruent with the particular user's perception of clinical reality were used. The main issue here was a lack of transparency, i.e. a black box problem where machine representations "stood between" users and the cognitive tasks they wanted to perform. For neurosurgeons, transparency meant their previous experience from traditional surgery could be applied, i.e. that they were not forced to perform additional cognitive work. From the view of the physicists, on the other hand, the concept of transparency was associated with mathematical precision and avoiding creating a cognitive distance between basic patient data and what is experienced as clinical reality. The physicists approached clinical visualization technology as though it was a laboratory apparatus--one that required continual adjustment and assessment in order to "capture" a quantitative clinical reality. CONCLUSION: Designers of visualization technology need to compare the cognitive interpretations generated by the new visualization systems to conceptions generated during "traditional" clinical work. This means that the viewpoint of different clinical user groups involved in a given clinical task would have to be taken into account as well. A way forward would be to acknowledge that visualization is a socio-cognitive function that has practice-based antecedents and consequences, and to reconsider what analytical and scientific challenges this presents us with.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 46, no 2, 111-8 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18999DOI: 10.1016/j.artmed.2008.11.003PubMedID: 19095427OAI: diva2:222218
Available from: 2009-06-07 Created: 2009-06-07 Last updated: 2013-09-05

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