liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Saliva collection using cotton buds with wooden sticks: a note of caution
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3256-5407
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2006 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 66, no 1, 15-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aims of the present study were to investigate whether the cotton-tipped applicators (cotton buds) used to collect saliva in infants can be stored un-centrifuged prior to cortisol analysis, and to test whether there is any difference in results between wooden and plastic-shafted sticks. Saliva was collected from 10 healthy adults using 6 cotton buds, i.e. 3 with wooden sticks and 3 with plastic sticks. The samples were then centrifuged at three different time-points: immediately after collection, after 24 h and after 48 h. Using cotton buds with wooden sticks, median salivary cortisol was significantly lower after 24 h (40 %) (p<0.001) and after 48 h (49 %) (p<0.001) of storage than it was of the samples centrifuged immediately. There was no significant difference between the samples centrifuged immediately and those centrifuged after 24 h and 48 h when saliva was collected using the cotton buds with plastic sticks. It is concluded that cotton buds with wooden sticks should not be used in studies of salivary cortisol unless it is possible to centrifuge the saliva immediately. Moreover, it is inadvisable to alternate between cotton buds with wooden and plastic sticks in the same study when collecting saliva for analysis of cortisol.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 66, no 1, 15-18 p.
Keyword [en]
Cortisol; neonate; plastics; stress
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13956DOI: 10.1080/00365510500402166OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-13956DiVA: diva2:22318
Available from: 2006-09-07 Created: 2006-09-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
In thesis
1. Stress in infants and parents: Studies of salivary cortisol, behaviour and psychometric measures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stress in infants and parents: Studies of salivary cortisol, behaviour and psychometric measures
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The life of a preterm infant admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit may be stressful from the moment of birth. Ever since Hans Selye’s initial characterisation of the biological stress response, cortisol has been frequently measured as an indicator of stress responsivity. However, research of the stress response and cortisol in infants, especially those who are preterm and/or ill, has been scarce basically because of methodological issues.

The first aim with this thesis was to investigate the acute stress response, as measured by salivary cortisol and behaviour, for preterm infants, healthy infants, and infants at high psychosocial risk in response to certain defined handling procedures. The second aim was to investigate the stress response, as measured by salivary cortisol and psychometric measures, for parents present during the handling procedure of their infants. The intention was to perform all investigations in an as naturally occurring situation as possible, which means that the studied procedures would have been performed irrespectively of the research.

The present thesis includes six original articles. The results of the first study demonstrate that it is feasible to collect sufficient amounts of saliva and to analyse salivary cortisol in neonates using the presented method of collection and analysis. The second study shows that preterm infants, usually cared for in incubators, show no signs of discomfort and have variable cortisol responses during skin-to-skin care with their mothers. The mothers, however, experience stress and low control before their first skin-to-skin care with their preterm infant and do not relax completely until after the session. In the third study we found that preterm infants have higher baseline salivary cortisol as compared to healthy full-term infants. Moreover, preterm infants have higher and sustained pain response during a nappy change as compared to healthy full-term infants. The results of the fourth study shows that infants younger than three months, living in psychosocial high-risk families, have increased cortisol responses during a nappy change, performed by the mother. However, support with the aim of improving mother-infant interaction, dampens the stress response. The results of the fifth study show that oral sweet-tasting solution in combination with a pacifier dampen the levels of the stress hormone cortisol in three months old infants during routine immunisation. Moreover, parents experience more self-rated emotional stress before immunisation if it is their first child who is being immunised. The sixth paper shows that the material used for saliva collection (cotton buds with wooden or plastic sticks) is of importance when saliva is collected but for practical reasons not centrifuged within 24 hours prior to cortisol analyse.

The present thesis shows that it is practically feasible to collect saliva and to analyse the stress hormone cortisol in infants. The interpretation of infants’ and parents’ salivary cortisol responses to different handling procedures are discussed in relation to shortand long-term consequences, neonatal intensive care, preterm birth, attachment, mood, and pain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, 2006
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 943
Keyword
Stress, Infants, Prematura childern, Intensive care, neonatal, saliva, Chemistry, Glucose, Hydrocortisone
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-7294 (URN)91-85497-78-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-05-12, Berzeliussalen, Ingång 65, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-09-07 Created: 2006-09-07 Last updated: 2016-05-04

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textLink to Ph.D. thesis

Authority records BETA

Mörelius, EvalotteNelson, NinaTheodorsson, Elvar

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Mörelius, EvalotteNelson, NinaTheodorsson, Elvar
By organisation
Pediatrics Faculty of Health SciencesClinical Chemistry
In the same journal
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 249 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf