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Getting started: Children’s participation and language learning in an L2 classroom
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4580-3002
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Komma igång : Barns deltagande och språkligt lärande i en förberedelseklass (Swedish)
Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling handlar om en förberedelseklass med elever (7-10 år) som har ett annat hemspråk än svenska (arabiska, kurdiska, thailändska). Utifrån empiri som samlats in genom videoinspelningar och observationer under ett års tid i en förberedelseklass studeras elevernas deltagande och språkinlärning i det dagliga klassrumsarbetet. I studien kombineras språksocialisationsteorier med en konversationsanalytisk ansats som bygger på detaljerade transkriptioner och analyser av interaktionen. Mer specifikt studeras elevernas kommunikativa praktiker såsom de utvecklas i klassrummets interaktionella ekologi och på ett sätt som situerar elevernas svenska språkutveckling inom ramen för deras konkreta klassrumserfarenheter. Tre återkommande kommunikativa praktiker identifieras och analyseras ingående: (1) påkallande av uppmärksamhet; (2) självselektioner till talturer i flerpartsamtal; (3) språklek och metapragmatisk lek.

Resultaten presenteras i fyra studier. Den första artikeln fokuserar på hur eleverna påkallar lärarens uppmärksamhet under individuellt arbete. Studien visar hur de uppgraderar sina försök att försäkra sig om lärarens uppmärksamhet genom att använda både verbala och icke-verbala resurser, inklusive affektiva markeringar och klassrumsartefakter. I den andra studien analyseras elevernas självselektioner i lärarledda samtal ur ett longitudinellt perspektiv. I artikeln framkommer hur deltagandet i dessa aktiviteter är intimt relaterat till språkliga och interaktionella kompetenser med konsekvenser för elevens ’identitet’ i klassrumsgemenskapen. I den tredje studien utforskas barnens metapragmatiska lekar. Studien visar hur de skapar skämtsamma episoder i vilka de överträder lokala normer för språkbruk. I den fjärde studien analyseras slutligen barnens spontana språklekar, vilka kan ta formen av egeninitierade ’språklektioner’, ett gemensamt utforskande av språklig form och mening, som även innefattar något av ett offentligt framträdande för kamratgruppen.

Sammantaget, visar studierna olika aspekter av informellt lärande i ett klassrum och lyfter fram praktiker som hitintills ofta förbigåtts i forskning om andraspråkslärande.

Abstract [en]

The present thesis investigates L2 learners’ participation and language learning in a Swedish immersion classroom (ages 7-10). The data consist of video recordings and observations of classroom (and recess) activities, during one school year. Methodologically, the present thesis combines insights from language socialization with detailed transcriptions and analysis, inspired by conversation analytic approaches. More specifically, the learners’ communicative practices are studied as they emerge in the interactional ecology of a specific classroom, situating Swedish language (L2) development within the concrete classroom experiences of the learner. Three communicative practices were recurrently identified in the children’s classroom repertoires: (i) summonses; (ii) self-selections; (iii) language play, including metapragmatic play.

The findings are documented in four studies. The first article focuses on how L2 novices solicit the teacher’s attention during individual seatwork. It illustrates how the novices upgraded their attempts to secure the teacher’s attention by employing multimodally structured summons turns, involving affective stances and displays of classroom artefacts. In the second study, an L2 novice’s self-selections in teacher-fronted (conversational) activities are analysed in a longitudinal perspective, showing how participation in such activities was related to language, and interactional skills, that were consequential for ‘learner’ identity in the classroom community. The third study explores the children’s metapragmatic play and demonstrates how they created joking episodes, involving transgressions from local classroom norms. Finally, the fourth study analyses children’s spontaneous form-focused language play. It demonstrates that such playful episodes and transgressions from ‘correct’ language form recurrently evolved into spontaneous peer-run ‘language lessons’; a form of aesthetic explorations of language form and meaning, involving multiparty public performances.

As a whole, the present studies illuminate different aspects of informal learning in language classrooms, highlighting practices that have largely escaped systematic attention in much prior work on second language acquisition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2006. , 67 + studies 1-4 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 350
Keyword [en]
language classroom, language learning, second language acquisition, social interaction, language socialization, peer group, affective stances, language play
Keyword [sv]
socialt samspel, språksocialisation, kamratgruppen, språklig lek, affektiva uttryck, förberedelseklass, andraspråksinlärning
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-7389ISBN: 91-85523-90-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-7389DiVA: diva2:22401
Public defence
2006-05-05, Hörsal 1, Key, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2015-06-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Soliciting teacher attention in an L2 classroom: Affective displays, classroom artefacts, and embodied action
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Soliciting teacher attention in an L2 classroom: Affective displays, classroom artefacts, and embodied action
2009 (English)In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 30, no 1, 26-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper explores L2 novices’ ways of soliciting teacherattention, more specifically, their summonses. The data arebased on detailed analyses of video recordings in a Swedishlanguage immersion classroom. The analyses illuminate the lexicalshape of summonses in conjunction with prosody, body posture,gestures, and classroom artefacts. As demonstrated, a simplestructure of summoning provided a handy method for solicitingand establishing the teacher's attention, and facilitated thenovices’ participation in classroom activities from earlyon. Importantly, however, the local design of the summonseswas influenced by the competitive multiparty classroom setting.The analyses illustrate how the novices upgraded their summonsesby displaying a range of affective stances. Different aspectsof the students’ embodied actions were employed as waysof indexing affective stances, for example ‘tired’,‘resigned’, or ‘playful’, that in thelocal educational order created methods that invited the teacher'sattention and conversational uptake. These locally availableresources allowed children to upgrade their summonses and toindicate their communicative projects, in spite of their limitedSwedish (L2) resources. The findings are discussed in termsof their implications for understanding participation in L2classroom interactions as being a matter of delicately calibratedcollaborative accomplishments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2009
Keyword
L2 novices, embodied action, L2 learning, children, affective stances
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-28176 (URN)10.1093/applin/amm057 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13
2. Turn-taking and learner identity during the first year in an L2 classroom: A novice’s changing patterns of participation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Turn-taking and learner identity during the first year in an L2 classroom: A novice’s changing patterns of participation
2006 (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13991 (URN)
Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2015-06-02
3. Repetition and joking in children’s second language conversations: playful recyclings in an immersion classroom
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Repetition and joking in children’s second language conversations: playful recyclings in an immersion classroom
2004 (English)In: Discourse studies, ISSN 1461-4456, Vol. 6, no 3, 373-392 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Repetition is often associated with traditional teaching drills.However, it has been documented how repetitionsare exploited by learners themselves (Duff, 2000). In a study of immersion classroom conversations, it wasfound that playful recyclings were recurrentfeatures of young learners’ second language repertoires.Such joking events were identified on the basisof the participants’ displayed amusement,and they often involved activity-based jokes (Lampert, 1996)and meta pragmatic play, that is, joking abouthow or by whom something is said. Two typesof recyclings: intertextual play and roleappropriations were both important features in informal classroomentertainment and in the formation of a communityof learners (cf. Rogoff, 1990). In a broad sense,both types of joking contained subversive elements in that theycreated play zones or ‘time-out’(cf. Goffman, 1959; Jefferson, 1996) withinclassroom activities. Moreover, role appropriations were subversivein that they inverted classroom hierarchies.

Keyword
children’s early L2 conversations, joking events, metapragmatic play, repetition, subversion
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13992 (URN)10.1177/1461445604044295 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2015-06-02
4. Language play, a collaborative resource in children’s L2 learning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Language play, a collaborative resource in children’s L2 learning
2005 (English)In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 26, no 2, 169-191 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Within communicative language teaching, ‘natural’language has had a privileged position, and a focus on formhas been seen as something inauthentic or as something thatis inconsequential for learning (for a critique, see Kramschand Sullivan 1996; Cook 1997). Yet in the present study of animmersion classroom, it was found that children with limitedL2 proficiency recurrently employed form-focused language playin spontaneous peer conversations. Our work involves a distinctfocus on multiparty talk, and it is shown how language playis, in many ways, a collaborative affair, initiated by the childrenthemselves. Playful mislabelings and puns often generated extendedrepair sequences that could be seen as informal ‘languagelessons’ focused on formal aspects of language. Simultaneously,shared laughter and shifting alignments between peers were centralaspects of the local politics of classroom life. The jokingwas quite rudimentary. Yet it included artful performance andcollaborative aestheticism, involving alliteration and otherforms of parallelisms, as well as code switching, laughing,and artful variations in pitch, volume and voice quality. Thepaper illustrates the need to integrate language play in modelsof L2 learning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2005
Keyword
language play; joking events; collaborative performance; second language learning; immersion classroom
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13993 (URN)10.1093/applin/amh042 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13

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Čekaitė, Asta

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