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Catching Mercury: Mercury in Lake Vänern and Swedish catchments
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Vänern och dess sediment har under 1900-talet varit en av Sveriges mest kvicksilver (Hg) kontaminerade miljöer. 47 sedimentprofiler tagna 2001 analyserades for total Hg och temporala och spatiala mönster påvisades. Av den direkta Hg tillförseln 1918-2001 återfinns c:a 30 ton i bottensedimenten. Idag återstår hög atmosfärsbelastning, vilken är huvudanledningen till att 100 kg Hg per år fastläggs i bottensedimenten. Avrinningsområdet fungerar som en effektiv Hg sänka där minst 90% av den totala belastningen fastläggs.

Inom Gullspångsälvens avrinningsområde uppvisar många sjösediment förhöjda Hg koncentrationer, aven i områden med obetydliga punktkällor. Eftersom den dominerande atmosfärsbelastningen effektivt fastläggs i uppströms avrinningsområden är effekten av mindre antropogena källor synbar.

Retentionen av atmosfäriskt Hg varierar mellan 55-93 % i större avrinningsområden. Retentionen är högre i skogsmark och i områden med stor sjöareal. Områden med berg eller tunt jordtäcke samt våtmarker minskar retentionen. Den specifika Hg retentionen, som är starkt påverkad av storleken på den atmosfäriska Hg belastningen, varierar mellan ~ 4-15 g Hg km -2yr -1. Framtida klimatförändringar kan öka mobiliseringen av den stora mängd Hg som är fastlagd inom Sveriges avrinningsområden.

Abstract [en]

The sediments of Lake Vänern is one of Sweden’s most mercury (Hg)

contaminated areas. During most of the 20th century large amounts of Hg were discharged into the lake. During the first temporal and spatial, high-resolution survey, since the 1970's, 47 sediment cores were taken in 2001, and analysed for total Hg content. Of the anthropogenic load added to the lake 1918-2001, ~30 tonnes has been retained in the sediments. The Hg concentration in the surface sediment has decreased significantly over the last 30 years. High atmospheric deposition is the main source of the 100 kg Hg yr -1 that accumulates within the sediments. A majority the atmospheric Hg is retained within upstream catchment. In fact, the lake and its catchment retain at least 90% of the total present Hg load.

The lakes in the Gullspångälven catchment reveal Hg enriched sediments in areas with no or insignificant direct loads. Small point sources, such as sewage treatment plants, affect the sediment concentrations as much of the atmospheric deposition is retained in the upstream catchment.

The retention of atmospheric Hg in major Swedish catchments varies between 55-93%. Catchments with a high percentage of forests and lakes displayed the highest retention. Wetlands, abundant in easily mobilized organic matter providing carrier particles for Hg, decreased retention ratios. The specific retention, varying between ~ 4-15 g Hg km -2yr -1, is heavily influenced by high atmospheric deposition in southern Sweden close to Central European sources. Predicted future changes in land use and climate may increase the mobilization of the large pool of accumulated Hg.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tema vatten i natur och samhälle , 2006. , 47 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 351
Series
Keyword [en]
mercury, deposition, budget, sediments, retention, catchments, dating
Keyword [sv]
kvicksilver, deposition, budget, retention, avrinningsområden, datering
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-7464ISBN: 91-85523-87-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-7464DiVA: diva2:22452
Public defence
2006-05-05, Elysion, Hus T, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2006-09-28 Created: 2006-09-28 Last updated: 2009-06-08

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Wihlborg, Peter

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