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Patterning polythiophene films using electrochemical over-oxidation
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2773-5096
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
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2005 (English)In: Smart materials and structures (Print), ISSN 0964-1726, E-ISSN 1361-665X, Vol. 14, N21-N25 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over-oxidative degradation of polythiophenes, which breaks the conjugation and destroys the electronic conductivity of the polymer, is well documented as a liability in these materials. We use this 'weakness', via controlled electrochemical over-oxidation, in a novel subtractive patterning technique compatible with high-speed reel-to-reel printing technology. We demonstrate the use of electrochemical over-oxidation to pattern PEDOT:PSS films via an x–y plotter, silk-screen and high-resolution photolithographic techniques, resulting in patterning down to a resolution of 2 µm and a conduction contrast between unpatterned and patterned areas of up to 108.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP Elctronic Journals , 2005. Vol. 14, N21-N25 p.
Keyword [en]
Not Available.
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14024DOI: 10.1088/0964-1726/14/4/N03OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-14024DiVA: diva2:22481
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Electrochromism and over-oxidation in conjugated polymers: Improved color switching and a novel patterning approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochromism and over-oxidation in conjugated polymers: Improved color switching and a novel patterning approach
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During the last 30 years a new research and technology field of organic electronic materials has grown thanks to a groundbreaking discovery made during the late 70’s. This new field is today a worldwide research effort focusing on exploring this new class of materials that also enable many new areas of electronics applications. In the organic electronics research field conducting organic molecules and polymers are synthesized and used in devices. The reason behind the success of conducting polymers is the flexibility to develop materials with new functionalities via clever chemical design and the possibility to use low-cost production techniques to manufacture devices.

This thesis reviews and describes different aspects of the organic electronics, here focusing on electrochromic displays; device improvements, the study of degradation and also patterning technology for rational manufacturing processing. The color contrast in electrochromic displays based on conjugated polymers was increased with approximately a factor of two by adding an extra electrochromic polymer. It was found that electrochemical over-oxidation (ECO) limits the flexibility in choosing desired electrochromic materials. ECO is one of the main degradation mechanisms in electrochromic displays. ECO is an efficient and fast process to permanently reduce the electronic conductivity in polythiophenes. From this, a novel patterning process was developed, in which the films of polythiophenes can be patterned through local and controlled deactivation of the conductivity. The ECO has been combined with different patterning tools to enable the use of existing printing tools for manufacturing. In combination with screen-printing, low-cost and high volume roll-to-roll patterning was demonstrated, while together with photolithography, patterning down to 2 µm can be achieved. Systematic studies have shown that conductivity contrasts beyond 107 can be achieved, which is enough for various simple electronic systems. To generate better understanding of the ECO phenomena the effect of pH on the over-oxidation characteristics was studied. The results suggest that a part of the mechanism for over-oxidation depends on the OH– concentration of the electrolyte used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, 2006. 31 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1237
Keyword
Conjugated polymers, Over-oxidation, Patterning, Electrochromism, PEDOT:PSS
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-7478 (URN)LiU-TEK-LIC- 2006:17 (Local ID)91-85497-34-7 (ISBN)LiU-TEK-LIC- 2006:17 (Archive number)LiU-TEK-LIC- 2006:17 (OAI)
Presentation
2006-03-02, TP2, Täppan, LiU Norrköping, Norrköping, 14:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-10-04 Created: 2006-10-04 Last updated: 2017-02-03
2. Electrochemical Switching in Conducting Polymers – Printing Paper Electronics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochemical Switching in Conducting Polymers – Printing Paper Electronics
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During the last 30 years a new research and technology field of organic electronic materials has grown thanks to a groundbreaking discovery made during the late 70’s. This new field is today a worldwide research effort focusing on exploring a new class of materials that also enable many new areas of electronics applications. The reason behind the success of organic electronics is the flexibility to develop materials with new functionalities via clever chemical design and the possibility to use low‐cost production techniques to manufacture devices.

This thesis reports different aspects of electrochemical applications of organic electronics. We have shown that the color contrast in reflective and transmissive electrochromic displays can be almost doubled by adding an extra electrochromic polymer. The choice of electrochromic material was found to be limited by its electrochemical over‐oxidation (ECO) properties, which is one of the main degradation mechanisms found in displays. The irreversible and non‐conducting nature of over‐oxidized films encouraged us to use it in a novel patterning process in which polythiophene films can be patterned through local and controlled deactivation of the conductivity. ECO can be combined with various patterning tools such as screen printing for low‐cost roll‐to‐roll manufacturing or photolithography, which enables patterning of small features. Studies have shown that electronic conductivity contrasts beyond 107 can be achieved, which is enough for various simple electronic systems. To generate better understanding of the ECO phenomenon, the effect of pH on the over‐oxidation characteristics was studied. The results suggest that a part of the mechanism for over‐oxidation depends on the OH– concentration of the electrolyte used. Over‐oxidation has also been used in electrochemical loggers, where the temperature and time dependence of the propagation of an over‐oxidation front is used to monitor and record the temperature of a package.

Abstract [sv]

Dagligen kommer vi i kontakt med olika plastmaterial. Dessa har vanligtvis mycket dålig elektrisk ledningsförmåga och används oftast som isolerande material. Det finns dock en klass av plaster som är halvledande eller ledande. Sedan upptäckten av dessa material för mer än 30 år sedan har nya material och användningsområden utvecklats och nu börjar de första produkterna baserad på organisk elektronik komma ut på marknaden. En stor fördel med de ledande plasterna är att egenskaperna kan anpassas genom att ändra den kemiska strukturen. Man kan dessutom lösa upp dem och skapa ledande bläck, som sedan kan användas i vanliga tryckmaskiner. Detta gör det möjligt att på ett enkelt och billigt sätt tillverka elektronik på liknande sätt som till exempel tidningar trycks idag.

Den här avhandlingen behandlar en del av det nya området som berör elektrokemiska komponenter och några av dess tillämpningar. Fokus ligger främst på billig, tryckt elektronik. Bland annat presenteras ett sätt att fördubbla kontrasten för tryckta pappersdisplayer, ett nytt sätt att mönstra ledande plaster och elektrokemisk temperaturloggningsetikett som kan övervaka temperaturen för förpackningar under transport. Den mekanism som förstör ledningsförmågan vid höga spänningar har varit ett återkommande inslag i de studier som har genomförts här. Denna mekanism förstör komponenterna under drift men kan också användas för att ta bort ledningsförmågan som mönstringsmetod eller för att lagra information, permanent, i temperaturloggningsetiketten.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2008. 37 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1212
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15132 (URN)9789173938013 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-10-10, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved

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Tehrani, PaymanRobinson, Nathaniel D.Kugler, ThomasHäll, JessicaBerggren, Magnus

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