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Multiband LNA Design and RF-Sampling Front-Ends for Flexible Wireless Receivers
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The wireless market is developing very fast today with a steadily increasing number of users all around the world. An increasing number of users and the constant need for higher and higher data rates have led to an increasing number of emerging wireless communication standards. As a result there is a huge demand for flexible and low-cost radio architectures for portable applications. Moving towards multistandard radio, a high level of integration becomes a necessity and can only be accomplished by new improved radio architectures and full utilization of technology scaling. Modern nanometer CMOS technologies have the required performance for making high-performance RF circuits together with advanced digital signal processing. This is necessary for the development of low-cost highly integrated multistandard radios. The ultimate solution for the future is a software-defined radio, where a single hardware is used that can be reconfigured by software to handle any standard. Direct analog-to-digital conversion could be used for that purpose, but is not yet feasible due to the extremely tough requirements that put on the analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Meanwhile, the goal is to create radios that are as flexible as possible with today’s technology. The key to success is to have an RF front-end architecture that is flexible enough without putting too tough requirements on the ADC.

One of the key components in such a radio front-end is a multiband multistandard low-noise amplifier (LNA). The LNA must be capable of handling several carrier frequencies within a large bandwidth. Therefore it is not possible to optimize the circuit performance for just one frequency band as can be done for a single application LNA. Two different circuit topologies that are suitable for multiband multistandard LNAs have been investigated, implemented, and measured. Those two LNA topologies are: (i) wideband LNAs that cover all the frequency bands of interest (ii) tunable narrowband LNAs that are tunable over a wide range of frequency bands.

Before analog-to-digital conversion the RF signal has to be downconverted to a frequency manageable by the analog-to-digital converter. Recently the concept of direct sampling of the RF signal and discrete-time signal processing before analog-to-digital conversion has drawn a lot of attention. Today’s CMOS technologies demonstrate very high speeds, making the RF-sampling technique appealing in a context of multistandard operation at GHz frequencies. In this thesis the concept of RF sampling and decimation is used to implement a flexible RF front-end, where the RF signal is sampled and downconverted to baseband frequency. A discrete-time switched-capacitor filter is used for filtering and decimation in order to decrease the sample rate from a value close to the carrier frequency to a value suitable for analog-to-digital conversion. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach an RF-sampling front-end primarily intended for WLAN has been implemented in a 0.13 μm CMOS process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2006. , 234 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1036
Keyword [en]
RF, Microelectronics, Multiband LNAs, RF-Sampling, Sampling Front-Ends, Flexible Wireless Receivers, Multistandard Receivers.
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-7582ISBN: 91-85523-22-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-7582DiVA: diva2:22606
Public defence
2006-10-27, Visionen, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-10-16 Created: 2006-10-16 Last updated: 2012-01-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Tuned, Inductorless, Recursive Filter LNA in CMOS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Tuned, Inductorless, Recursive Filter LNA in CMOS
2002 (English)In: Proceedings of the European Solid-State Circuit Conference (ESSCIRC), Florens, Italy, September, 2002, 351-354 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An active recursive filter approach is proposed for the implementation of an inductorless, tuned LNA in CMOS. Such an LNA was designed and fabricated ina 0.8 μm CMOS process. In simulation, the feasibility of this type of LNA was demonstrated, and reasonably good performance was obtained. The fabricated device shows a center frequency tuning range from 250 MHz to 975 MHz. Gain and Q value are tunable in a wide range. The LNA exhibits an input referred 1 dB compression point of -31 dB m and a noise figure of approximately 3 dB measured at 900 MHz center frequency.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14084 (URN)
Conference
28th European Solid-State Circuit Conference (ESSCIRC). Firenze, Italy, September 24-26, 2002.
Available from: 2006-10-16 Created: 2006-10-16 Last updated: 2013-10-31
2. An Active Recursive RF Filter in 0.35 μm BiCMOS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Active Recursive RF Filter in 0.35 μm BiCMOS
2005 (English)In: Journal of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, ISSN 0925-1030, Vol. 44, no 3, 213-218 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An active recursive filter approach is proposed for the implementaion of an inductorless, tuneable RF filter in BiCMOS. A test circuit was designed and manufactured in a 0.35 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. In simulations, the feasibility of this type of filter was demonstrated and reasonably good performance was obtained. The simulations show a center frequency tuning range from 6 to 9.4 GHz and a noise figure of 8.8 to 10.4 dB depending on center frequency. Gain and Q-value are tunable in a wide range. Simulated IIP-3 and 1-dB compression point is −26 and −34 dBm respectively, simulated at the center frequency 8.5 GHz and with 15 dB gain. Measurements on the fabricated device shows a center frequency tuning range from 6.6 to 10 GHz, i.e. slightly higher center frequencies were measured than the simulated.

Keyword
active filter, tuneable recursive filter for multicarrier systems, inductorless RF filter, tuneable gain and Q
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14085 (URN)10.1007/s10470-005-3002-2 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-10-16 Created: 2006-10-16 Last updated: 2013-10-31
3. A 750 MHz to 3 GHz Tunable Narrowband Low-Noise Amplifier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 750 MHz to 3 GHz Tunable Narrowband Low-Noise Amplifier
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the Norchip 2005 Conference, Oulu, Finland, 2005, 8-11 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An active recursive filter approach is proposed for the implementation of an inductorless, tunable LNA in CMOS. A test circuit was designed and manufactured in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The feasibility of this type of LNA was demonstrated in both simulations and measurements and reasonably good performance was obtained. The measurements show a center frequency tuning range from 0.75-3 GHz and a minimum noise figure of 4.8 dB. Gain and Q value are also tunable in a wide range. Measured IIP-3 and 1-dB compression point is -24 dBm and -29.5 dBm respectively, measured at the center frequency 1.7 GHz and with 21 dB gain.

Keyword
CMOS integrated circuits, UHF amplifiers, active filters, circuit tuning, integrated circuit design, low noise amplifiers, recursive filters, CMOS technology, active recursive filter, inductorless low-noise amplifier, tunable narrowband low-noise amplifier
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14086 (URN)10.1109/NORCHP.2005.1596976 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-10-16 Created: 2006-10-16
4. Wideband LNA for a Multistandard Wireless Receiver in 0.18 μm CMOS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wideband LNA for a Multistandard Wireless Receiver in 0.18 μm CMOS
2003 (English)In: Proceedings of the 29th European Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2003. ESSCIRC '03, 2003, 655-658 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A differential wideband LNA for a multistandard receiver has been designed and implemented in 0.18μm CMOS. The circuit topology is a two-stage amplifier with active feedback. The input stage is a common-source stage with a common-drain stage in the feedback loop for impedance matching. Bandwidth enhancement with inductive shunt-peaking is used for maximizing the bandwidth. Measurements on the fabricated device show a power gain of 13.1 dB and a 3-dB bandwidth of nearly 7 GHz together with an IIP3 and a 1-dB compression point of -4.7 dBm and -15.2 dBm respectively. The measured noise figures are 3.3 dB at 1 GHz and 5.5 dB at 6 GHz. Reported LNAs with similar performance are usually implemented with bipolar transistors or MESFETs.

Keyword
CMOS integrated circuits, integrated circuit design, radio receivers, wideband amplifiers
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14087 (URN)10.1109/ESSCIRC.2003.1257220 (DOI)0-7803-7995-0 (ISBN)
Conference
29th European Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2003. Estoril, Portugal, September 16-18.
Available from: 2006-10-16 Created: 2006-10-16 Last updated: 2013-10-31
5. Wideband LNA for aMultistandard RF-Sampling Front-End in 0.13 μm CMOS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wideband LNA for aMultistandard RF-Sampling Front-End in 0.13 μm CMOS
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The pad pitch of modern RF ICs is in order of few tens of micrometers. Connecting the large number of high speed I/Os to outside world with good signal fidelity and low cost is extremely challenging. To cope with this requirement, we need reflection-free transmission lines from on-chip pad to on-board SMA connectors. Such a transmission line is very hard to design due to the difference in on-chip and on-board feature size and the requirement for extremely large bandwidth. In this paper, we propose the use of narrow tracks close to chip and wide tracks away from the chip. This narrow to wide transition in width results in impedance discontinuity. A step change in substrate thickness is utilized to cancel the effect of the width discontinuity, thus achieving a reflection-free microstrip. To verify the concept several microstrips were designed on multilayer FR4 PCB without any additional manufacturing steps. The TDR measurements reveal that impedance variation is less then 3Ω for 50Ω microstrip when the width changes from 165μm to 940μm and substrate thickness changes from 100μm to 500μm. The Sparameter measurement on same microstrip shows S11 better then -9dB for the frequency range 1-6GHz

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14088 (URN)
Available from: 2006-10-16 Created: 2006-10-16 Last updated: 2010-01-14
6. Channel length as a design parameter for low noise wideband LNAs in deep submicron CMOS technologies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Channel length as a design parameter for low noise wideband LNAs in deep submicron CMOS technologies
2004 (English)In: Proceedings of the Norchip 2004 Conference, Oslo, Norway, November, 2004, 123-126 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, measurements of drain thermal noise for three NMOS devices with different channel lengths was carried out. The three NMOS devices were all implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology, with channel lengths 0.18. 0.36, and 0.72 μm, respectively. The result was then compared with simulated data using the BSIM3- model and parameters provided by the vendor Large discrepancies between measurements and simulations were observed. This work was done in order to understand how to utilize transistor length as a design parameter to achieve optimal noise gures for wideband LNAs in deep submicron technologies.

Keyword
CMOS, wideband LNAs
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14089 (URN)10.1109/NORCHP.2004.1423838 (DOI)0-7803-8510-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2006-10-16 Created: 2006-10-16 Last updated: 2013-10-31
7. SC Filter for RF Down Conversion with Wideband Image Rejection
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SC Filter for RF Down Conversion with Wideband Image Rejection
2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the ISCAS 2006 conference, Kos, Greece, 2006, 3542-3545 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keyword
SF filter, RF downconversion, RF sampling
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14090 (URN)
Available from: 2006-10-16 Created: 2006-10-16 Last updated: 2009-04-24
8. SC Filter for RF Sampling and Downconversion with Wideband Image Rejection
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SC Filter for RF Sampling and Downconversion with Wideband Image Rejection
2006 (English)In: Journal of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing by Springer, special issue: MIXDES, ISSN 0925-1030, Vol. 49, no 2, 115-122 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present an SC filter for RF downconversion using the direct RF sampling and decimation technique. The circuit architecture is generic and it features high image rejection for wideband signals and good linearity. An SC implementation in 0.13μm CMOS suitable for an RF of 2.4 GHz and 20 MHz signal bandwidth is presented as a demonstrator. Simulation results obtained using Cadence Spectre simulation tools are included.

Keyword
RF sampling, Decimation filter, SC filter, Wideband image rejection
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14091 (URN)10.1007/s10470-006-7833-2 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-10-16 Created: 2006-10-16
9. Noise Analysis and Noise Estimation of an RF-Sampling Front-End using an SC Decimation Filter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noise Analysis and Noise Estimation of an RF-Sampling Front-End using an SC Decimation Filter
2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the MIXDES 2006 Conference, Gdynia, Poland, 2006, 343-348 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keyword
RF sampling, decimation, thermal- and 1/f-noise, SC filter
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14092 (URN)
Available from: 2006-10-16 Created: 2006-10-16 Last updated: 2009-04-24
10. Multiband Direct RF-Sampling Receiver Front-End for WLAN in 0.13 μm CMOS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiband Direct RF-Sampling Receiver Front-End for WLAN in 0.13 μm CMOS
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper a flexible RF-sampling front-end primarily intended for WLAN operating in the 2.4 GHz and 5- 6 GHz bands is presented. The circuit is implemented in a 0.13 mum CMOS process with certain built-in test features. It consists of a wideband LNA and a SC discrete-time decimation filter used as a sampling IQ down-converter. The architecture is generic and scalable in frequency and it can operate at a sampling frequency up to 3 GHz and RF carrier up to 6 GHz. The decimation factor is 8 or 16 rendering the following A/D conversion feasible. The frequency response, linearity, and NF of the whole front-end have been measured. At the power consumption of 176 mW the circuit achieves specs that are satisfactory for WLAN applications.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14093 (URN)10.1109/ECCTD.2007.4529563 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-10-16 Created: 2006-10-16 Last updated: 2014-08-19

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