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Unequal Opportunities: The Impact of Social Capital and Recruitment Methods on Immigrants and Their Children in the Swedish Labour Market
Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8227-3659
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen består av tre empiriska studier som undersöker effekten av socialt kapital för individernas arbetsmarknadsutfall, utifrån två huvudsakliga frågeställningar. För det första: Vilka individuella egenskaper, såsom utbildningsnivå, genus och ursprungsland, underlättar eller försvårar tillgång till socialt kapital? Här studeras den avkastning som socialt kapital genererar på arbetsmarknaden, jämfört med utbildning och arbetslivserfarenhet. För det andra analyseras vilken betydelse en stigmatiserad social identitet hos vissa invandrade har för tillgången till socialt kapital och i vilken grad ett ”underskott” av socialt kapital påverkar deras arbetsmarknadsutfall. Resultatet av de empiriska undersökningarna tyder på att invandrare och deras barn, efter kontroll för produktionsrelaterade variabler, har mindre tillgång till socialt kapital och därför sämre arbetsmarknadsutfall.

Abstract [en]

This thesis consists of an introduction and three self-contained studies on the impact of social capital on individuals’ labour market outcomes. It focuses on labour market conditions for immigrants and their children in Sweden. The central research questions of the thesis are twofold. First, what individual characteristics, such as educational level, gender and country of origin, enhance or hinder access to social capital, and how well is social capital rewarded in the labour market compared with education and work experience? Second, does the stigmatized social identity of some immigrant groups affect their access to social capital, and to what degree does such a social capital ‘deficit’ affect their labour market outcomes? The results demonstrate that inequality between immigrants (and their children) and natives (and their children) in access to networks with valuable resources of social capital is an important issue in their labour market outcomes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2006. , 51 + essays 1-3 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 369
Keyword [en]
Social capital, social network, recruitment process, discrimination, immigrants
Keyword [sv]
Social kapital, socialt nätverk, rekryteringsprocess, diskriminering, invandrare
National Category
International Migration and Ethnic Relations
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-7789ISBN: 91-85643-96-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-7789DiVA: diva2:22737
Public defence
2006-10-27, K1, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-11-21 Created: 2006-11-21 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Unequal Opportunities for Young People with Immigrant Backgrounds in the Swedish Labour Market
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unequal Opportunities for Young People with Immigrant Backgrounds in the Swedish Labour Market
2004 (English)In: Labour, ISSN 1121-7081, Vol. 18, no 4, 633-660 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract. This paper investigates labour-market performance for 'young people with immigrant backgrounds' and those 'born in Sweden with native-born parents' in the Swedish labour market. It focuses on young people who were aged 18–20 during 1990, and their labour-market status after 8 years, in 1998. The results indicate that young people of immigrant descent have lower annual wage income and are at higher risk of not being employed than those born in Sweden with native-born parents. Differences in human capital characteristics cannot explain these results. Other theories, which stress the effect of discriminatory behaviour and the power of social network composition, are discussed as alternative interpretations. Having one native-born parent is considered to be important to labour market success. However, having a native-born father rather than a native-born mother is associated with better labour-market achievement.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14146 (URN)10.1111/j.1121-7081.2004.00281.x (DOI)
Available from: 2006-11-21 Created: 2006-11-21 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
2. Informal Recruitment Methods and Disadvantages of Immigrants in the Swedish Labour Market
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Informal Recruitment Methods and Disadvantages of Immigrants in the Swedish Labour Market
2008 (English)In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, Vol. 34, no 3, 411-430 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines the probability of success for different methods of finding employment in the Swedish labour market, in times of both economic growth and decline. Existing West European studies on hiring processes have not allowed researchers to examine the relationship between job contacts and wage income among various groups of immigrants. Since our dataset is sufficiently large, this article examines job-finding strategies and labour market outcomes for individuals within two large groups, immigrants and natives. By studying those who have been in their current jobs for one year or less, the paper investigates to what extent both natives and immigrants use their social networks to find a job, and how informal job-finding methods are related to the rate of return in the Swedish labour market for the job secured, in terms of hourly wage. The findings show that immigrants, compared to natives, are less likely to be able to find jobs through informal methods and that jobs found through informal methods do not pay as well for immigrants as for natives.

Keyword
Job-Finding Methods; Social Networks; Immigrants; Swedish Labour Market
National Category
International Migration and Ethnic Relations
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14147 (URN)10.1080/13691830701880251 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-11-21 Created: 2006-11-21 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
3. The Distribution and Return of Social Capital: Evidence from Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Distribution and Return of Social Capital: Evidence from Sweden
2007 (English)In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, Vol. 9, no 3, 383-407 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper studies the role of social capital in the status attainment process and examines the link between the hiring process and the potential pool of social capital embedded in a person's network. The analysis is based on a sample of people newly employed by the municipal services in Malmö, the third largest city in Sweden. Jobs in this sector of labour market are mainly low-paid, and are dominated by women and immigrants. The position generator method is used to measure social capital, understood as assets captured by individuals in social networks. The findings demonstrate that access to social capital is positively related to work experience, a higher educational level, having a partner, and active membership of voluntary associations. It is also apparent that being an immigrant is associated with a substantial social capital deficit. Regarding the return on capital, the results show that both human capital and social capital were rewarded with higher wages and more adequate jobs. Furthermore, we found that social capital is associated with better labour market outcomes, whether or not respondents reported that they obtained their current jobs using informal job-search methods. Results also show similar returns on access to social capital for natives and immigrants.

Keyword
social capital, hiring process, immigrants
National Category
International Migration and Ethnic Relations
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14148 (URN)10.1080/14616690701314093 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-11-21 Created: 2006-11-21 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved

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Behtoui, Alireza

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